Advertisement

Paleontological Journal

, Volume 45, Issue 3, pp 237–248 | Cite as

Feeding traces of proarticulata—the Vendian metazoa

  • A. Yu. Ivantsov
Article

Abstract

Three types of low-topography impressions are described from the Late Vendian, which are interpreted as the feeding traces of representatives of the phylum Proarticulata Fedonkin, 1985, which became extinct in the Precambrian. The producers of two types of trace were found. Impressions are usually large and arranged in groups; therefore their correct interpretation only became possible following large-scale excavation work that was carried out for the first time in the Late Vendian deposits of the Arkhangelsk Region in 1996–2001. The single trace (or trace platform) represents a copy of the whole ventral side of the body made by sandstone or only the part of it. Usually trace platforms are arranged in chains and orientated in one distinct direction. In spite of some superficial similarity, the fossils are neither body remains nor traces of post-mortem compression. The hypothesis of trace formation proposed suggests that the feeding strategy of Proarticulata was different from any feeding behavior known in large Phanerozoic animals. All types of imprints are identified as belonging to the genus Epibaion Ivantsov, 2002. It is proposed that the Australian fossil Phyllozoon Jenkins et Gehling, 1978 is also a feeding trace of Proarticulata.

Keywords

Vendian Metazoa Proarticulata trace fossils 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Droser, M.L., Gehling, J.G., and Jensen, S.R., Ediacaran Trace Fossils: True and False, Evolving Form and Function: Fossils and Development, New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 2005, pp. 125–138.Google Scholar
  2. Dzik, J. and Ivantsov, A.Yu., An Asymmetric Segmented Organism from the Vendian of Russia and the Status of the Dipleurozoa, Historical Biol., 1999, vol. 13, pp. 255–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Dzik, J., Anatomical Information Content in the Ediacaran Fossils and Their Possible Zoological Affinities, Integr. Comp. Biol., 2003, vol. 43, pp. 114–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fedonkin, M.A., Belomorskaya biota venda: Tr. Geol. in-ta AN SSSR. Vyp. 342 (White Sea Vendian Biota: Proceedings of the Geological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Vol. 342), Moscow: Nauka, 1981.Google Scholar
  5. Fedonkin, M.A., Systematic Description of Vendian Metazoa, Vendskaya sistema. Istoriko-geol. i paleontol. obosnovanie. T. 1. Paleontologiya (Vendian System: Historical Geology and Paleontological Substantiation: Vol. 1. Paleontology), Sokolov, B.S. and Ivanovskii, A.B., Eds., Moscow: Nauka, 1985, pp. 70–106.Google Scholar
  6. Fedonkin, M.A., Besskeletnaya fauna venda i ee mesto v evolyutsii Metazoa: Tr. Paleontol. in-ta AN SSSR. T. 226, (Soft-Bodied Vendian Fauna and Its Place in the Evolution of Metazoa: Proceedings of the Paleontological Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Vol. 226), Moscow: Nauka, 1987.Google Scholar
  7. Fedonkin, M.A. and Waggoner, B.M., The Late Precambrian Fossil Kimberella Is a Mollusc-Like Bilaterian Organism, Nature, 1997, vol. 388, no. 6645, pp. 868–871.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fedonkin, M.A., The Origin of the Metazoa in the Light of the Proterozoic Fossil Record, Paleontol. Res., 2003, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 9–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fedonkin, M.A., Simonetta, A., Ivantsov, A.Yu., New Data on Kimberella, the Vendian Mollusc-Like Organism (White Sea Region, Russia): Palaeoecological and Evolutionary Implications, The Rise and Fall of the Ediacaran Biota, Spec. Publ. Geol. Soc. London, 2007, vol. 286, pp. 157–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gehling, J.G., The Case for Ediacaran Fossil Roots to the Metazoan Tree, Mem. Geol. Soc. India, 1991, vol. 20, pp. 181–223.Google Scholar
  11. Gehling, J.G., Microbial Mats in Terminal Proterozoic Siliclastics: Ediacaran Death Masks, Palaios, 1999, vol. 14, pp. 40–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gehling, J.G., Ediacara Organisms: Relating Form to Function, Evolving Form and Function: Fossils and Development, New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 2005, pp. 43–66.Google Scholar
  13. Glaessner, M.F. and Wade, M., The Late Precambrian Fossils from Ediacara, South Australia, Palaeontology, 1966, vol. 9,part 4, pp. 599–628.Google Scholar
  14. Glaessner, M.F. and Wade, M., Praecambridium—A Primitive Arthropod, Lethaia, 1971, vol. 4, pp. 71–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Glaessner, M.F., A New Genus of Late Precambrian Polychaete Worms from South Australia, Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust., 1976, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 169–170.Google Scholar
  16. Glaessner, M.F., Precambrian, Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Part A. Introduction. Fossilization (Taphonomy), Biogeography and Biostratigraphy, Lawrence: Univ. Kansas Press, 1979, pp. 80–118.Google Scholar
  17. Grazhdankin, D.V. and Ivantsov, A.Yu., Reconstruction of Biotopes of Ancient Metazoa of the Late Vendian White Sea Biota, Paleontol. Zh., 1996, no. 6, pp. 54–58 [Paleontol. J. (Engl. Transl.), vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 676–680].Google Scholar
  18. Grazhdankin, D.V., Structure and Depositional Environment of the Vendian Complex in the Southeastern White Sea Area, Stratigr. Geol. Korrelyatsiya, 2003, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 3–23 [Stratigr. Geol. Correlation (Engl. Transl.), vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 313–331].Google Scholar
  19. Ivantsov, A.Yu., A New Dickinsonid from the Upper Vendian of the White Sea Winter Coast (Russia, Arkhangelsk Region), Paleontol. Zh., 1999, no. 3, pp. 3–11 [Paleontol. J. (Engl. Transl.), vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 211–221].Google Scholar
  20. Ivantsov, A.Yu., Traces of Active Moving of Large Late Vendian Metazoa over the Sediment Surface, Ekosistemnye perestroiki i evolyutsiya biosfery. Vyp. 4 (Ecosystem Restructure and the Evolution of the Biosphere, Vol. 4), Ponomarenko, A.G., Rozanov, A.Yu., and Fedonkin, M.A., Eds., Moscow: Paleontol. Inst. Ross. Akad. Nauk, 2001a, pp. 119–120.Google Scholar
  21. Ivantsov, A.Yu., Vendia and Other Precambrian “Arthropods,” Paleontol. Zh., 2001b, no. 4, pp. 3–10 [Paleontol. J. (Engl. Transl.), vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 335–343].Google Scholar
  22. Ivantsov, A.Yu. and Fedonkin, M.A., Traces of Active Movement—Final Evidence for the Animal Nature of Ediacaran Organisms, Mater. II Mezhdunar. simpoz. “Evolyutsiya zhizni na Zemle” (Proceedings of the International Symposium “Evolution of Life on the Earth”), Tomsk: NTL, 2001a, pp. 133–137.Google Scholar
  23. Ivantsov, A.Yu. and Fedonkin, M.A., Locomotion Trails of the Vendian Invertebrates Preserved with the Producer’s Body Fossils, White Sea, Russia, Abstr. N. Am. Paleontol. Conv. 2001. PaleoBios, 2001b, vol. 21, p. 72.Google Scholar
  24. Ivantsov, A.Yu. and Malakhovskaya, I.E., Gigantic Traces of Vendian Animals, Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 2002, vol. 385, no. 3, pp. 382–386 [Dokl. Earth Sci. (Engl. Transl.), vol. 385, no. 3, pp. 618–622].Google Scholar
  25. Ivantsov, A.Yu., New Proarticulata from the Vendian of the Arkhangel’sk Region, Paleontol. Zh., 2004a, no. 3, pp. 21–26 [Paleontol. J. (Engl. Transl.), vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 247–253].Google Scholar
  26. Ivantsov, A.Yu., Vendian Animals in the Phylum Proarticulata, Abstr. Int. Symp. “The Rise and Fall of the Vendian Biota,” IGSP Project 493, Prato, Italy, 2004b, p. 52.Google Scholar
  27. Ivantsov, A.Yu., Proarticulata-a Phylum of Metazoan Animals that Became Extinct in the Precambrian, Evolyutsionnaya morfologiya zhivotnykh. K stoletiyu so dnya rozhdeniya akad. A.V. Ivanova. Ch. I. Tr. SPb. ob-va estestvoispytatelei. Ser. 1. T. 97 (Evolutionary Morphology of Animals. A Contribution to the 100th Anniversary of the Birth of Academician A.V. Ivanov. Part I: Proceedings of the St. Petersburg Society of Naturalists, Ser. 1, Vol. 97), St. Petersburg: Gos. S.-Peterb. Univ. 2008a, pp. 32–42.Google Scholar
  28. Ivantsov, A., Feeding Traces of the Ediacaran Animals, Abstr. 33rd Int. Geol. Congr. August 6–14, 2008, Oslo, Norway, Section HPF-17, Oslo: IGCC, 2008b, p. 171.Google Scholar
  29. Ivantsov, A.Yu., New Reconstruction of Kimberella, Problematic Vendian Metazoan, Paleontol. Zh., 2009, no. 6, pp. 3–12 [Paleontol. J. (Engl. Transl.), vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 601–611].Google Scholar
  30. Jenkins, R.J.F. and Gehling, J.G., A Review of the Frond-Like Fossils of the Ediacara Assemblage, Rec. S. Aust. Museum, 1978, vol. 17, no. 23, pp. 347–359.Google Scholar
  31. Jenkins, R.J.F., Functional and Ecological Aspects of Ediacaran Assemblages, Origin and Early Evolution of the Metazoa, New York: Plenum, 1992, pp. 131–176.Google Scholar
  32. Menner, V.V., Other Problematics, Stratigrafiya SSSR. Verkhnii dokembrii (Stratigraphy of the USSR: Upper Precambrian), Moscow: Nauka, 1963, pp. 504–505.Google Scholar
  33. Seilacher, A., Grazhdankin, D.V., and Leguta, A., Ediacaran Biota: The Dawn of Animal Life in the Shadow of Giant Protists, Paleontol. Res., 2003, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 43–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Seilacher, A., Trace Fossils Analysis, Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 2007.Google Scholar
  35. Sprigg, R.C., Early Cambrian “Jellyfishes” of Ediacara, South Australia and Mouth John, Kimberley District, Western Australia, Trans. R. Soc. S. Aust., 1949, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 72–99.Google Scholar
  36. Wade, M., Preservation of Soft Bodied Animals in Precambrian or Cambrian Sandstones at Ediacara, South Australia, Lethaia, 1968, vol. 1, pp. 238–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Wade, M., Dickinsonia: Polychaete Worms from the Late Precambrian Ediacara Fauna, South Australia, Mem. Queensland Museum, 1972, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 171–190.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Borissiak Paleontological InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations