Paleontological Journal

, 43:601 | Cite as

New reconstruction of Kimberella, problematic Vendian metazoan

Article

Abstract

Six groups of fossil remains of Kimberella quadrata are described. They represent the imprints of the body in different types of preservation (including the group of specimens that are elongated more than twice in comparison with the common ones) and also the feeding traces and mucus secretions. The imprint is considered to be created only by the upper side of the body. The fossil material shows that Kimberella had hard sclerites, probably of aragonite, and several teeth in its mouth. Kimberella is suggested to have “the mantle” with sclerites, wider foot, which was spread over the outer surface of the mantle, and the strong transverse and longitudinal musculature.

Key words

Kimberella reconstruction problematic metazoan Vendian 

References

  1. 1.
    J.-B. Caron, A. Scheltema, C. Schander, and D. Rudkin, “A Soft-Bodied Mollusc with Radula from the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale,” Nature 442, 159–163 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. H. Collins, “The ‘Evolution’ of Anomalocaris and Its Classification in the Arthropod Class Dinocarida (nov.) and Order Radiodonta (nov.),” J. Paleontol. 70, 280–293 (1996).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. A. Fedonkin, “Glimpse into 600 Million Years Ago,” Science in Russia 6(126), 4–15 (2001).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. A. Fedonkin, “The Origin of the Metazoa in the Light of the Proterozoic Fossil Record,” Paleontol. Res. 7(1), 9–41 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. A. Fedonkin and P. Vickers-Rich, “First Trace of Motion,” in The Rise and Fall of the Ediacaran Biota (Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ. Vol. 286), Ed. by P. Vickers-Rich and P. Komarower (London, 2007), pp. 205–216.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. A. Fedonkin and B. M. Waggoner, “The Vendian Fossil Kimberella: The Oldest Mollusk,” Nature 388, 868–871 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. A. Fedonkin, A. Simonetta, and A. Yu. Ivantsov, “New Data on Kimberella, the Vendian Mollusc-Like Organism (White Sea Region, Russia): Palaeoecological and Evolutionary Implications,” in The Rise and Fall of the Ediacaran Biota (Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ. Vol. 286), Ed. by P. Vickers-Rich and P. Komarower (Geol. Soc. Publ. House, London, 2007), pp. 157–179.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    J. G. Gehling, “The Case of Ediacaran Fossil Roots to the Metazoan Tree,” Mem. Geol. Soc. India 20, 181–224 (1991).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. G. Gehling, “Microbial Mats in Terminal Proterozoic Siliciclastics: Ediacaran Death Masks,” Palaios 14, 40–57 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. G. Gehling, “Ediacara Organisms: Relating Form to Function,” in Evolving Form and Function: Fossils and Development: Proc. Sympos. Honoring Adolf Seilacher, Ed. by D. E. G. Briggs (Yale Univ. Press, New Haven, 2005), pp. 43–66.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    M. F. Glaessner and B. Deily, “The Geology and Late Precambrian Fauna of the Ediacara Fossil Reserve,” Rec. South Austral. Mus. 13, 369–401 (1959).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. F. Glaessner and M. Wade, The Late Precambrian Fossils from Ediacara, South Australia,” Palaeontology 9, 599–628 (1966).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Yu. Ivantsov and M. A. Fedonkin, “Traces of Spontaneous Movement-Final Proof of the Animal Nature of Ediacaran Organisms,” in Proceedings of II International Symposium on Evolution of Life on Earth (Izd. Nauchno-Tekh. Lit-ry, Tomsk, 2001), pp. 133–137 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. Yu. Ivantsov and M. A. Fedonkin, “Locomotion Trails of the Vendian Invertebrates Preserved with the Producer’s Body Fossils, White Sea, Russia,” in Abstracts of North American Paleontological Convention (PaleoBios, Berkeley, 2001), Vol. 21, p. 72.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. Yu. Ivantsov and Ya. E. Malakhovskaya “Giant Traces of Vendian Animals,” Dokl. Ross. Akad. Nauk 385A(3), 382–386 (2002) [Dokl. Earth Sci. 385A (6), 618–622 (2002)].Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. J. F. Jenkins, “Functional and Ecological Aspects of Ediacaran Assemblages,” in Origin and Early Evolution of the Metazoa, Ed. by J. H. Lipps and P. W. Signor (Plenum Press, New York, 1992), pp. 131–176.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    C. Nielsen, “Animal Evolution. Interrelationships of the Living Phyla (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, 2001).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. H. Scheltema, K. Kerth, and A. M. Kuzurian, “Original Molluscan Radula: Comparison among Aplacophora, Polyplacophora, Gastropoda, and the Cambrian Fossil Wiwaxia corrugata,” J. Morphol. 257, 219–244 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. Seilacher, D. Grazhdankin, and A. Leguta, “Ediacaran Biota: The Dawn of Animal Life in the Shadow of Giant Protists,” Paleontol. Res. 7(1), 43–54 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    P. Trusler, J. Stilwell, and P. Vickers-Rich, “Comment: Future Research Directions for Further Analysis of Kimberella,” in The Rise and Fall of the Ediacaran Biota (Geol. Soc. London Spec. Publ. Vol. 286), Ed. by P. Vickers-Rich and P. Komarower (Geol. Soc. Publ. House, London, 2007), pp. 181–185.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    M. Wade, “Hydrozoa and Scyphozoa and Other Medusoids from the Precambrian Ediacara Fauna, South Australia,” Palaeontology 15, 197–225 (1972).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Borissiak Paleontological InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations