Paleontological Journal

, Volume 42, Issue 9, pp 859–995 | Cite as

Cranial morphology and evolution of Permian Dinomorpha (Eotherapsida) of eastern Europe

  • M. F. IvakhnenkoEmail author


A Revision of the cranial morphology of Middle and Late Permian East European Dinomorpha (Theromorpha, Eotherapsida) resulted in a clarification of the taxonomic relationships within this group. As the system was constructed, four parameters, i.e., morphological, biomorph, and geographical and stratigraphic ranges, were taken into account in each subordinate taxon. The taxon Theromorpha is ranked as class, since it was primarily formed as a pilidosic group (covered with hair), in contrast to the class Reptilia, a pholidosic group (covered with scales).

Key words

Theromorpha Eotherapsida Dinomorpha morphology biomorphs Permian eastern Europe 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    E. F. Allin, “Evolution of the Mammalian Middle Ear,” J. Morphol. 147, 403–437 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    E. F. Allin, “The Auditory Apparatus of Advanced Mammal-like Reptiles and Early Mammals,” in The Ecology and Biology of Mammal-like Reptiles, Ed. by N. Hotton, III, P.D. McLean, J.J. Roth, and C.E. Roth (Smithsonian Inst., Washington, 1986), pp. 283–294.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    V. P. Amalitzky, “Diagnoses of the New Forms of Vertebrates and Plants from the Upper Permian of North Dvina,” Izv. Ross. Akad. Nauk 25(1), 1–12 (1922).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. T. Bakker, “Juvenile-Adult Habitat Shift in Permian Fossil Reptiles and Amphibians,” Science 217, 53–55 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. R. Barghusen, “The Origin of the Mammalian Jaw Apparatus,” in Morphology of the Maxillo-Mandibular Apparatus, Ed. by G.H. Schumacher (VEB G. Thieme, Leipzig, 1972), pp. 26–32.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. R. Barghusen, “The Adductor Jaw Musculature of Dimetrodon (Reptilia, Pelycosauria),” J. Paleontol. 47(5), 823–834 (1973).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    T. H. Barry, “A New Dicynodont Ancestor from the Upper Ecca (Lower Middle Permian) of South Africa,” Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 74, 117–136 (1974).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    L. D. Boonstra, “Some Features of the Cranial Morphology of the Tapinocephalid Deinocephalians,” Bull. Am. Mus. Natur. Hist. 72(2), 75–98 (1936).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. D. Boonstra, “Paranteosaurus gen. nov.; a Titanosuchian Reptile,” Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 42, 157–159 (1954).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    L. D. Boonstra, “The Dentition of the Titanosuchian Dinocephalians,” Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 46(6), 57–112 (1962).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    L. D. Boonstra, “Early Dichotomes in the Therapsida,” Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 59(5), 176–195 (1963a).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    L. D. Boonstra, “Diversity within South African Dinocephalia,” S. Afr. Mus. 59(5), 196–206 (1963b).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. S. Brink, “Speculations on Some Advanced Mammalian Characteristics in the Higher Mammal-like Reptiles,” Palaeontol. Afr. 4, 77–85 (1956).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    A. S. Brink, “The Taxonomic Position of the Synapsida,” S. Afr. J. Sci. 59(5), 153–159 (1963).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. S. Brink, “Illustrated Bibliographical Catalogue of the Synapsida,” Repts. S. Afr. Geol. Surv. 10(1), 1–150 (1986).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    R. L. Broom, “On the Use of the Term Anomodontia,” Rec. Albany Mus. 1, 266–268 (1905).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. L. Broom, “On a New Cynodont Reptile (Aelurosuchus browni),” Trans. S. Afr. Phil. Soc. 16, 376–378 (1906).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. L. Broom, “On Some New Fossil Reptiles from the Karroo Beds of Victoria West, South Africa,” Trans. S. Afr. Phil. Soc. 18(1), 31–42 (1907).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. L. Broom, “On the Carnivorous Mammal-like Reptile of the Family Titanosuchidae,” Ann. Transvaal Mus. 13, 9–36 (1929).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. A. Bykov, Ecological Dictionary (Nauka, Alma-Ata, 1983) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zh. Cheng and J. Li, “A New Genus of Primitive Dinocephalian: the Third Report on Late Permian Dashankou Lower Tetrapod Fauna,” Vertebr. Palasiat. 35(1), 35–43 (1997).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    P. K. Chudinov, “New Facts about the Fauna of the Upper Permian of the USSR,” J. Geol. Chicago 73(1), 117–130 (1965).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    N. M. Chumakov, “Climate and Climatic Zones of the Permian and Early Triassic,” Tr. Geol. Inst. Ross. Akad. Nauk 550 (Climate in the Epochs of Major Biosphere Transformation), 230–256 (2004).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    M. A. Cluver, “The Cranial Morphology of the Lower Triassic Dicynodont Myosaurus gracilis,” Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 66(4), 35–64 (1974).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. A. Cluver and G. M. King, “A Reassessment of the Relationships of Permian Dicynodontia (Reptilia, Therapsida) and a New Classification of Dicynodonts,” Ann. S. Afr. Mus. 91(3), 195–273 (1983).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    E. H. Colbert, “The Mammal-like Reptile Lycaenops,” Bull. Am. Mus. Natur. Hist. 89(6), 357–404 (1948).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    E. D. Cope, “The Theromorphous Reptilia,” Am. Natur. 12, 829–830 (1878).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    R. B. Cowles, “Possible Origin of Dermal Temperature Regulation,” Evolution 12, 347–357 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    C. B. Cox, “On the Anatomy of a New Dicynodont Genus with Evidence of the Position of the Tympanum,” Proc. Zool. Soc. London, Ser. B 132(3), 321–367 (1959).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    C. B. Cox, “A New Digging Dicynodont from the Upper Permian of Tanzania,” in Studies in Vertebrate Evolution, Ed. by K.A. Joysey and T.S. Kemp (Oliver and Boyd, Edinburg, 1972), pp. 173–189.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    A. W. Crompton, “The Cranial Morphology of a New Genus and Species of Ictidosaurian,” Proc. Zool. Soc. London, Ser. B 130(2), 183–216 (1958).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    A. W. Crompton and N. Hotton, III, “Functional Anatomy of Masticatory Apparatus of Two Dicynodonts (Reptilia, Therapsida),” Postilla Peabody Mus. Natur. Hist. 109, 1–51 (1967).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    A. W. Crompton and F. A. Jenkins, “Origin of Mammals,” in Mesozoic Mammals: The First Two-Thirds of Mammalian History, Ed. by J.A. Lillegraven, Z. Kielan-Jaworowska, and W.A. Clemens (Univ. California Press, Berkley, 1979), pp. 59–73.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    A. W. Crompton, C. R. Taylor, and J. A. Jagger, “Evolution of Homeothermy in Mammals,” Nature 272(5651), 333–336 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    G. R. De Beer, “The Development of the Vertebrate Skull,” (Oxford Univ. Press, London, 1937).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    R. De Mar and H. R. Barghusen, “Mechanics and the Evolution of the Synapsid Jaw,” Evolution 26, 622–637 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    I. A. Efremov, “Some New Permian Reptiles from the USSR,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 19(9), 771–776 (1938).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    I. A. Efremov, “New Finds of Permian Terrestrial Vertebrates in Bashkortostan and the Chkalovsk Region,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 27(4), 412–415 (1940a).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    I. A. Efremov, “Dinocephalian Fauna of the Village of Isheevo,” Tr. Paleontol. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR 10 (Preliminary Descriptions of New Forms of the Permian and Triassic Fauna of Terrestrial Vertebrates of the USSR), 31–73 (1940b).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    I. A. Efremov, “A Terrestrial Vertebrate Fauna from the Permian Copper Sandstones of the Western Fore-Urals,” Tr. Paleontol. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR 54, 1–416 (1954).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    E. D. Eichwald, “Über die Saurier des Kupfers ührenden Zechsteins Russlands,” Bull. Soc. Imp. Natur. Moscou 21(3), 141–150 (1848).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    E. D. Eichwald, Lethaea Rossica ou Paleontologie de la Russie, Vol. 1: Ancienne periode (Stuttgart, 1860).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    G. Fischer von Waldheim, “Beitrag zur näheren Bestimmung des von Hrn. Wangenheim von Qualen abgebildeten und besreibenen Saurier-Kopf,” Bull. Soc. Imper. Natur. Moscou 18(3), 540–543 (1845).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    G. Fischer von Waldheim, “Bemerkungen über das Schädel-fragment, welches Herr Major Wang. v. Qualen in dem West-Ural entdeckt und der Gesellschaft zur Beurteiling vorgelegt hat,” Bull. Soc. Imper. Natur. Moscou 20(3), 263–267 (1847).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    E. Gaupp, “Die Entwicklung des Kopfskeletts,” Hetwig’s Handbuch des Entw.-Lehre 3, 573–875 (1906).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    V. K. Golubev, “Permian Tetrapod Stratigraphy,” New Mexico Mus. Natur. Hist. Sci. Bull. 30, 299–301 (2005).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    A. P. Hartmann-Weinberg, “Gorgonopids from the USSR As the Time Markers,” in Problems of Paleontology (Mosk. Gos. Univ., Moscow, 1938), Vol. 4, pp. 47–87 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    J. A. Hopson, “The Origins of the Mammalian Middle Ear,” Am. Zool. 6, 437–450 (1966).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    N. Hotton, III, “An Alternative to Dinosaur Endothermy: The Happy Wanderer,” in A Cold Look at the Warm-blooded Dinosaurs: Selected Symposia Series 28, Ed. by R.D.K. Thomas and E.C. Olson (Am. Assoc. Advanc. Sci., 1980), pp. 311–350.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    N. Hotton, III, E. C. Olson, and R. Beerbower, “Amniote Origin and Discovery of Herbivory,” in Amniote Origins: Completing the Transition to Land, Ed. by S.S. Sumida and K.L. Martin (Academic, New York, 1977), pp. 207–264.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    F. von Huene, “Short Review of the Lower Tetrapods,” Spec. Publ. R. Soc. S. Afr., Vol. R. Broom Commem., 65–106 (1948).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    F. von Huene, Paläontologie und Phylogenie der niederen Tetrapoden (Fischer, Jena, 1956), pp. 1–716.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    M. F. Ivakhnenko, “The Problem of Homology of Some Bones of the Skull Roof of Lower Tetrapods,” Zh. Obshch. Biol. 45(1), 143–151 (1984).Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    M. F. Ivakhnenko, “Permian Parareptiles of the USSR,” Tr. Paleontol. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR 223, 1–159 (1987).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    M. F. Ivakhnenko, “Principles of the Classification of the Lower Tetrapods,” in Abstracts of the First World Congress of Herpetology (Univ. Kent Press, Canterbury, 1989), p. 150.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    M. F. Ivakhnenko, “Late Paleozoic Faunal Assemblage of Tetrapods from Deposits of the Basin of the Mezen River,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 4, 81–90 (1990).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    M. F. Ivakhnenko, “New Late Permian Dromasaurians (Anomodontia) from Eastern Europe,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 1, 77–84 (1994).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    M. F. Ivakhnenko, “Primitive Late Permian Dinocephalian Titanosuchids of Eastern Europe,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 3, 98–105 (1995a).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    M. F. Ivakhnenko, “New Primitive Therapsida from the Permian of Eastern Europe,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 4, 110–119 (1995b).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    M. F. Ivakhnenko, “Primitive Anomodonts, Venyukovias, from the Late Permian of Eastern Europe,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 4, 77–84 (1996).Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    M. F. Ivakhnenko, “Biarmosuches from the Ocher Faunal Assemblage of Eastern Europe,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 3, 79–86 (1999) [Paleontol. J. 33 (3), 309–316 (1999)].Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    M. F. Ivakhnenko “Estemmenosuches and Primitive Theriodonts from the Late Permian,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 2, 79–86 (2000a) [Paleontol. J. 34 (2), 189–197 (2000)].Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    M. F. Ivakhnenko, “The Nikkasauridae—Problematic Primitive Therapsids from the Late Permian of the Mezen Localities,” Paleontol. J. 34(Suppl. 2), 179–186 (2000b).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    M. F. Ivakhnenko, “Tetrapods from the East European Placket—Late Paleozoic Natural Territorial Complex,” Tr. Paleontol. Inst. Ross. Akad. Nauk 283, 1–200 (2001).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    M. F. Ivakhnenko, “The Origin and Early Divergence of Therapsids,” Paleontol. Zh, No. 2, 49–57 (2002a) [Paleontol. J. 36 (2), 168–175 (2002)].Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    M. F. Ivakhnenko, “Taxonomy of East European Gorgonopians (Therapsida),” Paleontol. Zh., No. 3, 56–65 (2002b) [Paleontol. J. 36 (3), 283–292 (2002)].Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    M. F. Ivakhnenko, “Eotherapsids in the Zoocenoses of the Ocher Faunal Assemblage,” in IV All-Russia Conference on Paleontology and Stratigraphy of the Permian and Triassic of Northern Eurasia, Ed. by L.P. Tatarinov and V.K. Golubev (Paleontol. Inst. Ross. Akad. Nauk, Moscow, 2002c), pp. 16–17 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    M. F. Ivakhnenko, “The Features of Lower Jaw Articulation in the Gorgonopian Suchogorgon (Therapsida),” Paleontol. Zh., No. 1, 48–52 (2003a) [Paleontol. J. 37 (1), 50–54 (2003)].Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    M. F. Ivakhnenko, “The Angular Region of the Lower Jaw in Primitive Therapsids,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 3, 65–70 (2003b) [Paleontol. J. 37 (3), 287–292 (2003)].Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    M. F. Ivakhnenko, “Eotherapsids from the East European Placket,” Paleontol. J. 37(Suppl. 4), 339–465 (2003c).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    M. F. Ivakhnenko, “Comparative Survey of Lower Permian Tetrapod Faunas of Eastern Europe and South Africa,” No. 1, 70–75 (2005a) [Paleontol. J. 39 (1), 66–71 (2005)].Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    M. F. Ivakhnenko, “Morphology of the Gorgonopidae (Eotherapsida) and Tetrapod Communities in the Late Paleozoic,” Paleontol. J. 39(Suppl. 4), 393–511 (2005b).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    M. F. Ivakhnenko, “Evolution of Late Paleozoic Tetrapods As Evolution of Their Biomorphs,” in Evolution of the Biosphere and Biodiversity, Ed. by S.V. Rozhnov (KMK, Moscow, 2006), pp. 373–393 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    M. F. Ivakhnenko, V. K. Golubev, Yu. M. Gubin, et al., “Permian and Triassic Tetrapods of Eastern Europe,” Tr. Paleontol. Inst. Ross. Akad. Nauk 268, 1–215 (1997).Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    M. F. Ivakhnenko and G. I. Tverdokhlebova, “A Revision of Permian Bolosauromorphs from Eastern Europe,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 2, 98–106 (1987).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    N. N. Kalandadze and A. A. Kurkin, “A New Permian Dicynodont and the Question of the Origin of the Kannemeyeroidea,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 6, 60–68 (2000) [Paleontol. J. 34 (6), 642–649 (2000)].Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    N. N. Kalandadze and A. S. Rautian, “Intercontinental and Transtemporal Faunal Relationships of the Ocher and Mezen Faunal Assemblages,” in IV All-Russia Conference on Paleontology and Stratigraphy of the Permian and Triassic of Northern Eurasia, Ed. by L.P. Tatarinov and V.K. Golubev (Paleontol. Inst. Ross. Akad. Nauk, Moscow, 2002), pp. 18–20 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    T. S. Kemp, “On the Functional Morphology of the Gorgonopsid Skull,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 256(801), 1–83 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    T. S. Kemp, “The Jaw Articulation and Musculature of the Whaitsiid Therocephalia,” in Studies in Vertebrate Evolution, Ed. by K.A. Joysey and T.S. Kemp (Oliver and Boyd, Edinburg, 1972), pp. 213–230.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    T. S. Kemp “Mammal-like Reptiles and the Origin of the Mammals,” (Academic, London, 1982).Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    T. S. Kemp, “Interrelationships of the Synapsida,” in The Phylogeny and Classification of the Tetrapoda, Vol. 2: Mammals, Ed. by M. J. Benton (Systematic Assoc., 1988), Spec. Vol. 35B, pp. 1–22.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    K. A. Kermack and F. Mussett, “The Ear in the Mammal-like Reptiles and Early Mammals,” Acta Paleontol. Polon. 23(1–2), 147–158 (1983).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    G. M. King, “Dinocephalia, Anomodontia,” in Encyclopedia of Paleoherpetology, Ed. by P. Wellnhofer (Fischer, Stuttgart, 1988), Part 17, pp. 1–175.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    A. A. Kurkin, “On the Dental Morphology of Deuterosaurus biarmicus Eichw. (Dinocephalia, Synapsida),” Paleontol. Zh., No. 1, 92–94 (1997) [Paleontol. J. 31 (1), 90–92 (1997)].Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    A. A. Kurkin, “A New Dicynodont from Excavations on the Malaya Northern Dvina River,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 3, 87–92 (1999) [Paleontol. J. 33 (3), 326–331 (1999)].Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    A. A. Kurkin, “New Dicynodonts from the Upper Permian of the Vyatka Basin,” Paleontol. J. 34(Suppl. 2), 203–210 (2000).Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    A. A. Kurkin, “New Late Paleozoic Dicynodonts from the Vyazniki Assemblage of Terrestrial Tetrapods of Eastern Europe,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 1, 53–60 (2001) [Paleontol. J. 35 (1), 53–59 (2001)].Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    A. A. Kurkin, “A New Dicynodont (Anomodontia, Eotherapsida) from the Upper Permian of Tatarian,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 4, 81–84 (2006) [Paleontol. J. 35 (4), 434–437 (2006)].Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    S. S. Kutorga, “Beitrag zur Kenntnis der organischen Überreste des Kupfersandsteins am Westlischen Abhänge des Urals,” (St. Petersburg, 1838).Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    J.-L. Li and Zh. Cheng, “First Discovery of Eotitanosuchian (Therapsida, Synapsida) of China,” Vertebr. Palasiat. 35(4), 268–282 (1997).Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    S.G. Lucas, “Chinese Fossil Vertebrates,” (Columbia Univ. Press, New York, 2001).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Zh. Luo and A. W. Crompton, “Transformation of the Quadrate (Incus) Groove the Transition from Nonmammalian Cynodonts to Mammals,” J. Vertebr. Paleontol. 14(3), 341–374 (1994).Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    S. P. Modesto, “The Skull of the Herbivorous Synapsid Edaphosaurus boanerges from the Lower Permian of Texas,” Palaeontology 38(1), 213–239 (1995).Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    F. von Nopcsa, “The Genera of Reptiles,” Palaeobiologica 1, 163–188 (1928).Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    V. G. Ochev and M. V. Surkov, “On the Biogeography of Continental Tetrapods on the Eve of the Terminal Permian Extinction,” Tr. Nauch.-Issled. Inst. Geol. Saratov. Gos. Univ., Nov. Ser. 6 71–80 (2000).Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    E. C. Olson, “Origin of Mammals Based upon Cranial Morphology of the Therapsid Suborders,” Geol. Soc. Am. Spec. Pap., No. 55, 1–136 (1944).Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    E. C. Olson, “The Evolution of a Permian Vertebrate Chronofauna,” Evolution 6(2), 181–196 (1952)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    E. C. Olson, “Late Permian Terrestrial Vertebrates USA and USSR,” Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. Philadelphia 52(Part 2, No. 5), 1–224 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    E. C. Olson, “The Exploitation of Land by Early Tetrapods,” in Morphology and Biology of Reptiles, Ed. by A.A. Bellairs and C.B. Cox (Academic, London-New York, 1976), pp. 1–30.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    E. C. Olson, “Biological and Physical Facts in the Dispersal of Permo-Carboniferous Terrestrial Vertebrates,” in Historical Biogeography, Plate Tectonics, and the Changing Environment, Ed. by J. Gray and A.J. Boucot (State Univ. Press, Oregon, 1979), pp. 227–238.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    E. C. Olson, “Coevolution or Coadaptation? Permocarboniferous Vertebrate Chronofauna,” in Coevolution, Ed. by M.H. Nitecki (Academic, London-New York, 1983), pp. 307–338.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Yu. A. Orlov, “Predatory Dinocephalians from the Isheevo Fauna (Titanosuchians),” Tr. Paleontol. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR 72, 1–114 (1958).Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    H. F. Osborn, “The Reptilian Subclasses Diapsida and Synapsida and the Early History of the Diaptosauria,” Mem. Am. Mus. Natur. Hist. 1, 449–507 (1903).Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    F. R. Parrington, “Remarks on a Theory of the Evolution of the Tetrapods Middle Ear,” J. Laringol. Otol. 63, 580–595 (1949).Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    F. R. Parrington, “On the Cranial Anatomy of Some Gorgonopsids and the Synapsid Middle Ear,” Proc. Zool. Soc. London, Ser. B 125(1), 1–40 (1955).Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    F. R. Parrington, “The Origin of Mammals,” Adv. Sci. 24, 165–173 (1967).Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    P. A. Pravoslavlev, “Gorgonopsidae from the Northern Dvina Excavations of V.P. Amalitzky,” in Northern Dvina Excavations of Prof. V.P. Amalitzky, Ed. by A.P. Karpinskii (Akad. Nauk SSSR, Leningrad, 1927a), Vol. 3, pp. 1–118 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    P. A. Pravoslavlev, “Skull Roof of Inostrancevia sp.,” Ezheg. Russ. Paleontol. O-va 6, 51–56 (1927b).Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    R. R. Reisz, “Pelycosauria,” in Encyclopedia of Paleoherpetology, Ed. by P. Wellnhofer (Fischer, Stuttgart-New York, 1986), Part 17A, pp. 1–102.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    R. R. Reisz and H. D. Sues, “Herbivory in Late Paleozoic and Triassic Terrestrial Vertebrates,” in Evolution of Herbivory in Terrestrial Vertebrates: Perspectives from the Fossil Record, Ed. by H.D. Sues (Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, 2000), pp. 9–42.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    A. N. Riabinin, “Vertebrate Fauna from Upper Permian Deposits of the Basin of the Sviyaga River: 1. A New Dinocephalian Ulemosaurus svijagensis n. gen., n. sp.,” Ezheg. Tsentr. Nauch.-Issled. Muz. Chernyshev 1, 4–40 (1938).Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    A. S. Romer, “Osteology of the Reptilia” (Univ. Chicago Press, Chicago, 1956).Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    A. S. Romer and L. Price, “Review of the Pelycosauria,” Spec. Pap. Geol. Soc. Am., No. 28, 1–538 (1940).Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    B. S. Rubidge, “The Cranial Morphology and Paleoenvironment of Eodicynodon Barry (Therapsida, Dicynodontia),” Paleontol. Navors. Nas. Mus. Bleomfontein 4(14), 327–402 (1984).Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    B. S. Rubidge, “A New Primitive Dinocephalian Mammal-like Reptile from the Permian of South Africa,” Paleontology 34(3), 547–559 (1991).Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    B. S. Rubidge, “Australosyodon, the first primitive Anteosaurid Dinocephalian from the upper Permian of Gondwana,” Paleontology, 55,Part 3, 579–594 (1994).Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    B. S. Rubidge, Ed., “Biostratigraphy of the Beaufort Group (Karroo Supergroup),” S. Afr. Comm. Stratigr. Biostratigr. 1, 1–46 (1995).Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    N. Rybczynski, “Cranial Anatomy and Phylogenetic Position of Suminia getmanovi, a Basal Anomodont (Amniota: Therapsida) from the Late Permian of Eastern Europe,” Zool. J. Linnean Soc. 130, 320–373 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    N. Rybczynski and R. R. Reisz, “Earliest Evidence for Efficient Oral Processing in a Terrestrial Herbivore,” Nature 411, 684–687 (2001).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    R. R. Schoch, “A Complete Trematopsid Amphibian from the Middle Triassic of Germany,” J. Vertebr. Paleontol. 26(1), 29–43 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    H. G. Seeley, “Research on the Structure, Organisation and Classification of the Fossil Reptilia: 8. Further Evidence of the Skeleton in Deuterosaurus and Rhopalodon from the Permian of Russia,” Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 185, 663–717 (1894).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    A. G. Sennikov, “Early Thecodonts of Eastern Europe,” Tr. Paleontol. Inst. Ross. Akad. Nauk 263, 1–140 (1995).Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    A. G. Sennikov, “Evolution of the Permian and Triassic Tetrapod Communities of Eastern Europe,” Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol. 120, 331–351 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    C. A. Sidor and J. Welman, “A Second Specimen of Lemurosaurus pricei (Therapsida, Burnetiamorpha),” J. Vertebr. Paleontol. 23(3), 631–642 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    D. Sigogneau, Révision Systématique des Gorgonopsiens Sud-Africains (CNRS, Paris, 1970a).Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    D. Sigogneau, “Contribution a la conaissanse des Ictidorhinidés,” Palaeontol. Afr. 13, 25–38 (1970b).Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    D. Sigogneau and P. K. Tchudinov, “Reflections on Some Russian Eotheriodonts (Reptilia, Synapsida, Therapsida),” Palaeovertebrata 85(3), 79–109 (1972).Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    D. Sigogneau-Russell, “Theriodontia I,” in Encyclopedia of Paleoherpetology, Ed. by P. Wellnhofer (Fischer, Stuttgart-New York, 1989), Part 17B, pp. 1–127.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    C. Sullivan, R. R. Reisz, and R. M. H. Smith, “The Permian Mammal-like Herbivore Diictodon, the Oldest Known Example of Sexually Dimorphic,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B 270, 173–178 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    M. V. Surkov, “The First Dicynodont from the Terminal Lower Triassic of European Russia, with Special Reference to the Evolution of the Masticatory Apparatus of These Therapsids,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 1, 76–82 (2005) [Paleontol. J. 39 (1), 72–78 (2005)].Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    P. P. Sushkin, “On the Ethology of Dicynodon,” Dokl. Ross. Akad. Nauk 24, 11–12 (1922).Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    L. P. Tatarinov, “The Evolution of the Sound-Transmitting Apparatus in Lower Terrestrial Vertebrates and the Origin of Reptiles,” Zool. Zh. 37(1), 57–74 (1958).Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    L. P. Tatarinov, “Order Therapsida: Therapsids,” in Fundamentals of Paleontology: Amphibians, Reptiles, and Birds, Ed. by A.K. Rozhdestvenskii and L.P. Tatarinov (Nauka, Moscow, 1964), p. 246 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    L. P. Tatarinov, “New Data on Ulemosaurus,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 2, 93–108 (1965).Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    L. P. Tatarinov, “New Data on the Formation in Theriodonts of the Additional Mammal-like Articulation,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 166(3), 749–752 (1966).Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    L. P. Tatarinov, “New Theriodonts from the Upper Permian of the USSR, in Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR (Nauka, Moscow, 1968), pp. 32–46 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    L. P. Tatarinov, “Theriodonts of the USSR,” Tr. Paleontol. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR 143, 1–240 (1974).Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    L. P. Tatarinov, Morphological Evolution of Theriodonts and General Questions of the Phylogeny (Nauka, Moscow, 1976) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    L. P. Tatarinov, “A New Gorgonopian from the Upper Permian Deposits of the Vologda Region,” Paleontol. Zh., No 2, 97–104 (1977).Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    L. P. Tatarinov, “New Theriodonts (Reptilia) from the Late Permian Fauna of the Town of Kotelnich, Kirov Region,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 5, 76–82 (1999a) [Paleontol. J. 33 (5), 540–546 (1999)].Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    L. P. Tatarinov, “A New Eotitanosuchian (Reptilia, Therapsida) from the Kazanian Stage (Upper Permian) of Udmurtia,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 6, 57–63 (1999b) [Paleontol. J. 33 (6), 636–642 (1999)].Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    L. P. Tatarinov, “A New Gorgonopid (Reptilia, Theriodontia) from the Upper Permian of the Vologda Region,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 1, 70–78 (2000) [Paleontol. J. 34 (1), 68–76 (2000)].Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    P. K. Tchudinov, “Upper Permian Therapsids from the Ezhovo Locality,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 4, 81–94 (1960).Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    P. K. Tchudinov, “Family Eotitanosuchidae,” in Fundamentals of Paleontology: Amphibians, Reptiles, and Birds), Ed. by A.K. Rozhdestvenskii and L.P. Tatarinov (Nauka, Moscow, 1964a), pp. 247–249 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    P. K. Tchudinov, “New Data on Dinocephalians from the USSR,” Paleontol. Zh., No 2, 85–98 (1964b) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    P. K. Tchudinov, “New Dinocephalians from the Ocher Locality,” in Upper Paleozoic and Mesozoic Amphibians and Reptiles of the USSR (Nauka, Moscow, 1968), pp. 16–31 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    P. K. Tchudinov, “Early Therapsids,” Tr. Paleontol. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR 202, 1–230 (1983).Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    T. Thulborn and S. Turner, “The Last Dicynodont: An Australian Cretaceous Relict,” Proc. R. Soc. London, Biol. Sci. 270(1518), 887–993 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    H. von Trautschold, “Die Reste permischen Reptilien des Palaeontologischen Kabinets der Universität Kazan,” Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imper. Natur. Moscou 15, 1–39 (1884).Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    A. Tumarkin, “On the Evolution of the Auditory Conducting Apparatus: A New Theory Based on Functional Consideration,” Evolution 9, 221–243 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    G. I. Tverdokhlebova and M. F. Ivakhnenko, “New Tetrapods from the Tatarian Stage of Eastern Europe,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 2, 122–126 (1994).Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    B. P. Vjuschkov, “On Gorgonopians from the Northern Dvina Fauna,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 91(2), 397–400 (1953).Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    B. P. Vjuschkov, “Suborder Theriodontia (Theriodonts): Superfamily Gorgonopsoidea,” in Fundamentals of Paleontology: Amphibians, Reptiles, and Birds, Ed. by A.K. Rozhdestvenskii and L.P. Tatarinov (Nauka, Moscow, 1964), pp. 258–285 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    G. N. Vysotskii, “Sketches on Soils and Ground Water Conditions,” Byull. Pochvoved., Nos. 1–2, 5–13; Nos. 3–4, 74–84; Nos. 5–8, 104–119 (1927).Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    D. M. S. Watson, “The Deinocephalia, an Order of Mammal-like Reptiles,” Proc. Zool. Soc. London 3(2), 749–786 (1914).Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    D. M. S. Watson, “The Bases of Classification of the Theriodontia,” Proc. Zool. Soc. London 29(1), 35–98 (1921).Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    D. M. S. Watson, “Dicynodon and Its Allies,” Proc. Zool. Soc. London 118(3), 823–877 (1948).Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    D. M. S. Watson, “Palaeontology and Modern Biology,” (New Haven, 1951).Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    D. M. S. Watson, “The Evolution of the Mammalian Ear,” Evolution 7(2), 159–177 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    D. M. S. Watson, “On Bolosaurus and the Origin and Classification of Reptiles,” Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Coll. (Cambridge) 111(9), 1–449 (1954).Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    D. M. S. Watson and A. S. Romer, “A Classification of Therapsid Reptiles,” Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard Coll. (Cambridge) 114(2), 37–89 (1956).Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    T. S. Westoll, “The Origin of the Tetrapods,” Biol. Rev. 18(2), 78–98 (1943).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    T. S. Westoll, “The Mammalian Middle Ear,” Nature 155, p. 114 (1945).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    E. G. Wever and J. A. Vernon, “The Sensitivity of the Turtles Ear As Shown by Its Electrical Potentials,” Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 42(5), 213–220 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Paleontological InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations