Advertisement

Paleontological Journal

, 42:776 | Cite as

Origin and dispersal of the earliest brachiopods

  • G. T. UshatinskayaEmail author
Article

Abstract

Brachiopods first appeared at the very beginning of the Phanerozoic together with the first skeletal organisms. Most brachiopod taxa that arose in the first half of the Cambrian had a short temporal range and became completely extinct by the middle of the Middle Cambrian. Rigid articulation of the valves of brachiopods was provided by various structures, which also appeared in the Early Cambrian. This fact points to the importance of this feature for the formation of the whole group and at the same time testifies to the high variability of rigid articulation at the early stages of brachiopod evolution. This is a typical manifestation of archaic diversity in this animal phylum, which appeared very early in the Phanerozoic. Another important property of the archaic diversity of the early brachiopods was the large number of centers of diversification. As for the majority of groups, climatic zonality was the main factor determining the distribution of brachiopods at the beginning of the Phanerozoic. The main ecological types of brachiopods also appeared in the Early Cambrian.

Keywords

Cambrian Ordovician Paleontological Journal Siberian Platform Lower Cambrian 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    D. V. Ager, “The Occurrence of Pedunculate Brachiopods in Soft Sediments,” Geol. Mag. 99, 184–186 (1962).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. Atkins, “The Ciliary Feeding Mechanisms of the Magathyridae (Brachiopoda) and the Growth Stages of the Lophophore,” J. Mar. Biol. Assoc. U.K. 39, 459–479 (1960).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. F. Bakhturov, V. M. Evtushenko, and V. S. Pereladov, The Kuonamka Bituminous Carbonaceous Shale Formation: Proceedings of the Institute Geology and Geophysics of the Siberian Division of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Vol. 671 (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1988) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. G. Bassett, “Life Strategies of Silurian Brachiopods,” Spec. Pap. Palaeontol. 32, 237–263 (1984).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. Bengtson and T. Fletcher, “The Oldest Sequence of Skeletal Fossils in the Lower Cambrian of Southeastern Newfoundland,” Can. J. Earth Sci. 20(4), 525–536 (1983).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. D. Brasier, “The Succession of Small Shelly Fossils (Especially Conoidal Microfossils) from English Precambrian-Cambrian Boundary Beds,” Geol. Mag. 123(3), 237–256 (1986).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. D. Brasier, “Global Ocean-Atmosphere Change across the Precambrian-Cambrian Transition,” Geol. Mag. 129(2), 161–168 (1992).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. D. Brasier, R. M. Corfield, L. A. Derry, et al., “Multiple 13C Excursions Spanning the Cambrian Explosion to the Botomian Crisis in Siberia,” Geology 22, 455–458 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    R. G. Bromley and F. Surlyk, “Borings Produced by Brachiopod Pedicles, Fossil and Recent,” Lethaia 6, 349–365 (1973).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. H. Chuang, “The Ciliary Feeding Mechanisms of Lingula unguis (L.),” Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 127(2), 167–189 (1956).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. H. Chuang, “The Structure and Function of the Alimentary Canal in Lingula unguis (L.) (Brachiopoda),” Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 132, 283–311 (1959).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    B. L. Cohen and A. Weydman, “Molecular Evidence That Phoronids Are a Subtaxon of Brachiopods (Brachiopoda: Phoronata) and That Divergence of Metazoan Phyla Began Long Before the Early Cambrian,” Organisms, Diversity & Evolution 5, 253–273 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Morris S. Conway, H. B. Whittington, D. E. G. Briggs, et al., Atlas of the Burgess Shale (Palaeonotol. Assoc., London, 1982).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    G. A. Cooper, “Lower Cambrian Brachiopods from the Rift Valley (Israel and Jordan),” J. Paleontol. 50(2), 269–289 (1976).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fundamentals of Paleontology. Bryozoa, Brachiopoda, Ed. by T. G. Sarycheva (Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moscow, 1960) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    L. M. Gerasimenko, I. V. Goncharova, E. A. Zhegallo, et al., “The Dynamics of the Release and Absorption of Phosphorus by Cyanobacteria,” in Turnovers in Ecosystems and the Evolution of the Biosphere, Issue 1 (Nauka, Moscow, 1994), pp. 348–353 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    G. Geyer, “A New Obolellid Brachiopod from the Lower Cambrian of Morocco,” Palaeontology 68(Part 5), 995–1002 (1994).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    V. Yu. Gorjansky, Inarticulate Brachiopods of the Cambrian and Ordovician Deposits of the Northwestern Russian Platform (Nedra, Leningrad, 1969) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    V. Yu. Gorjansky and L. E. Popov, “Morphology, Systematic Position, and the Origin of Inarticulate Brachiopods with a Calcium Carbonate Shell,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 3, 3–14 (1985).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. A. Hederson, “Shell Adaptation in Acrothelid Brachiopods to Settlement on a Soft Substrate,” Lethaia 7(1), 57–62 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    I. Hinz, “The Lower Cambrian Microfauna of Comley and Rushton, Shropshire, England,” Palaeontographica, Pal. A 196, 1–100 (1987).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    L. E. Holmer, “Middle Ordovician Phosphatic Brachiopods from Vastergotland and Dalarna, Sweden,” Fossils and Strata 26, 172 (1989).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    E. A. Ivanova, The Ecology and Development of the Silurian and Devonian Brachiopods of the Kuznetsk, Minusinsk, and Tuva Basins (Akad. Nauk SSSR, Moscow, 1962) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Yu. Ivantsov and G. T. Ushatinskaya, “A Unique Find of a Complete Philhedra Shell (Brachiopoda) in the Lower Ordovician of the Leningrad Region,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 3, 44–47 (1997) [Paleontol. J. 31 (3), 292–295 (1997)].Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    J. B. C. Jackson, T. E. Goreau, and W. D. Hartman, “Recent Brachiopod-Coralline-Sponge Communities and Their Paleoecological Significance,” Science 173, 623–625 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    B. Jendryka-Fuglewicz, “Analiza porównawcza Ramienionogów z utworów kambru gór Świętokrzyskich i platformy prekambryjskiej w Polsce,” Przegląd Geologiczny 3, 150–155 (1992).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Y. Jin, X. Hou, and H. Wang, “Lower Cambrian Pediculate Lingulids from Yunnan, China,” J. Paleontol. 367(5), 788–798 (1993).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    M. Jope, “Brachiopod Shell Proteins: Their Functions and Taxonomic Significance,” Am. Zool. 17, 133–140 (1977).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. Kerber, “Microfossilien aus Unterkambrischen Gesteien der Montagne Noire, Frankreich,” Palaeontographica, Abt. A 202, 127–203 (1988).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    S. P. Koneva, Stenothecoids and Inarticulate Brachiopods of the Lower and Lower Middle Cambrian of Central Kazakhstan (Nauka, Alma-Ata, 1979) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    F. F. Krause and A. J. Rowell, “Distribution and Systematics of the Inarticulate Brachiopods of the Ordovician Carbonate Mud Mound of Meiklejohn Peak, Nevada,” Pal. Contr. Univ. Kansas 61, 1–74 (1975).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    J. R. Laurie, “Phosphatic Fauna of the Early Cambrian Todd River Dolomite, Amadeus Basin, Central Australia,” Alcheringa 10, 431–454 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Liu Di-yang, “Earliest Cambrian Brachiopods from South West China,” Acta Palaeontol. Sin. 18(5), 505–511 (1979).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    E. Liñan and M. Mergl, “Lower Cambrian Brachiopods of Sierra Morena, SW Spain,” R. Soc. Española Hist. Nat. (Geol.) 80, 207–220 (1982).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ch. Lochman, “Stratigraphy, Paleontology, and Paleogeography of the Elliptocephala asaphoides Strata in Cambridge and Hoosick Quadrangles, New York,” Bull. Geol. Soc. Am. 67, 1331–1396 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ya. E. Malakhovskaya, “Microstructure of the Shell Wall of the Genus Kutorgina Billings, 1861,” Paleontol. Zh. (in press).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Yu. V. Mamkaev, “Comparison of Morphological Differences between the Lower and Higher Groups from a Single Phylogenetic Stock”, Zh. Obshch. Biol. 29(4), 48–56 (1968).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    H. M. McCammon, “The Food of Articulate Brachiopods,” J. Paleontol. 43(4), 976–985 (1969).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    W. S. McKerrow, C. R. Scotese, and M. D. Brasier, “Early Cambrian Continental Reconstructions,” J. Geol. Soc. Lond. 149, 599–606 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    I. V. Nikolaeva, “Facial Zonality of the Chemical Composition of the Glauconite Group Minerals and Its Controlling Factors,” in Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Glauconite (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1981), pp. 4–40 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    C. M. Pan and N. Watabe, “Uptake and Transport of Shell Material in Glottidia pyramidata Simpson (Brachiopoda: Inarticulata),” J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 118, 257–268 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Yu. L. Pelman, Early and Middle Cambrian Inarticulate Brachiopods of the Siberian Platform (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1977) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Yu. L. Pelman, “Paleobiocenotical Groups of Fauna in the Middle Cambrian Domanik Deposits of the Kuonamka Formation (Siberian Platform, Muna River),” in Environment and Life in the Geological Past: Paleolandscapes and Biofacies (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1982), pp. 60–74 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Yu. L. Pelman, “Phylum Brachiopoda,” in Subdivision of the Lower Cambrian of Siberia into Stages: Atlas of Fossils (Nauka, Moscow, 1983), pp. 147–155 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Yu. L. Pelman, N. A. Aksarina, S. P. Koneva, et al., The Earliest Brachiopods of Northern Eurasia (Ob”ed. Inst. Geol. Geofiz. Mineral. Sib. Otd. Ross. Akad. Nauk, Novosibirsk, 1992) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    I. G. Percival, “Inarticulate Brachiopods from the Late Ordovician of New South Wales, and Their Palaeoecological Significance,” Alcheringa 2(2), 117–142 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    L. E. Popov, M. C. Bassett, L. E. Holmer, and J. Laurie, “Phylogenetic Analysis of Higher Taxa of Brachiopoda,” Lethaia 26(1), 1–5 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    L. E. Popov, L. E. Holmer, A. J. Rowell, et al., “Early Cambrian Brachiopods from North Greenland,” Palaeontology 40,Part 2, 337–354 (1997).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    L. E. Popov, O. N. Zezina, and Ya. Nylvak, “Microstructure of the Apical Portion of the Shell of Inarticulate Brachiopods and Its Ecological Significance,” Byull. Mosk. O-va Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Biol. 87(6), 94–103 (1982).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    L. E. Popov and Yu. A. Tikhonov, “Early Cambrian Brachiopods from Southern Kirgiziya,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 3, 33–45 (1990).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    A. P. Rasnitsyn, “The Process of Evolution and the Methodology of Systematics,” in Tr. Russ. Entomol. Obshch. St. Petersburg 73, 1–108 (2002).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Reference Sections and Stratigraphy of the Cambrian-Ordovician Phosphorite-Bearing Obolellid Sequence in the Northwestern Russian Platform, Ed. by I. F. Nikitin (Nauka, Leningrad, 1989) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    J. Roberts and P. A. Jell, “Early Middle Cambrian (Ordian) Brachiopods of the Coonigan Formation, Western New South Wales,” Alcheringa 14, 257–309 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    A. J. Rowell, “Some Early Stages in the Development of the Brachiopod Crania anomala (Müller),” Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Ser. 13 111, 35–52 (1960).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    A. J. Rowell, “Early Cambrian Brachiopods from the Southwestern Great Basin of California and Nevada,” J. Paleontol. 51(1), 68–85 (1977).Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    A. J. Rowell and F. F. Krause, “Habitat Diversity in the Acrotretacea (Brachiopoda, Inarticulata),” J. Paleontol. 47, 791–800 (1973).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    A. Yu. Rozanov, “Some Problems in the Study of the Earliest Skeletal Organisms,” Byull. Mosk. O-va Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Geol. 54(3), 62–69 (1979).Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    A. Yu. Rozanov and A. Yu. Zhuravlev, “Lower Cambrian Fossil Records of the Soviet Union,” in Origin and Early Evolution of the Metazoa, Ed. by J. H. Lipps and P. W. Signor (Plenum, New York, 1992), pp. 205–281.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    M. J. S. Rudwick, Living and Fossil Brachiopods (Hutchinson Univ. Library, London, 1970).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    A. W. A. Rushton, “The Cambrian of Wales and England,” in The Cambrian of the British Isles, Norden, and Spitsbergen, Ed. by C. H. Holland (London, 1974), pp. 43–123.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    C. Schuchert, “Paleogeographic and Geologic Significance of Recent Brachiopoda,” Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 22, 258–275 (1911).Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    A. W. Shaw, “Paleontology of Northwestern Vermont. V. The Lower Cambrian Fauna,” J. Paleontol. 29(5), 775–805 (1955).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    A. W. Shaw, “Paleontology of Northwestern Vermont. VIII. Fauna of Hungerford State,” J. Paleontol. 36(2), 314–321 (1962).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Stratigraphy of the Upper Precambrian and Cambrian Deposits of the Western Part of the East European Platform (Nauka, Moscow, 1979) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Subdivision of the Lower Cambrian into Stages: Stratigraphy (Nauka, Moscow, 1984) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    B. Swedmark, “The Interstitial Fauna in Marine Sand,” Biol. Rev. 39, 1–42 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    C. W. Thayer and H. M. Steele-Petrovic, “Burrowing of the Lingulid Brachiopod Glottidia pyramidata: Its Ecologic and Paleoecologic Significance,” Lethaia 8, 209–221 (1975).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part H, Brachiopoda, Vol. 1, Ed. by R. C. Moore (Geol. Soc. Am. and Univ. of Kansas Press, Lawrence, 1965).Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    G. T. Ushatinskaya, “A Record of the Earliest Articulate Brachiopod,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 4, 102–103 (1986).Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    G. T. Ushatinskaya, “Unusual Inarticulate Brachiopods from the Lower Cambrian of Mongolia,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 2, 62–68 (1987).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    G. T. Ushatinskaya, “Obolellids (Brachiopods with an Articulation of the Valves by Teeth and Sockets) from the Lower Cambrian of Transbaikalia,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 1, 34–39 (1988).Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    G. T. Ushatinskaya, “A New Genus of the Paterinidae (Brachiopoda) from the Lower Cambrian of Western Mongolia,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 1, 115–118 (1993).Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    G. T. Ushatinskaya, The Earliest Lingulata: Proceedings of the Paleontological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vol. 262 (Nauka, Moscow, 1995) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    G. T. Ushatinskaya, “The Teeth-Bearing Inarticulate Brachiopods from the Middle Cambrian of Siberia and Kazakhstan,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 5, 38–42 (1998) [Paleontol. J. 32 (5), 474–478 (1998)].Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    G. T. Ushatinskaya, “An Ancient Brachiopod with an Organic Integument from the Lower Cambrian of Mongolia,” Paleontol. Zh., No. 4, 10–16 (2004) [Paleontol. J. 38 (4), 358–365 (2004)].Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    G. T. Ushatinskaya and A. Yu. Zhuravlev, “A Contribution to the Problem of the Mineralization of a Skeleton (Using Brachiopods As an Example),” Dokl. Ross. Akad. Nauk 337(2), 231–234 (1994).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    G. T. Ushatinskaya and Ya. E. Malakhovskaya, “Origin and Development of the Cambrian Brachiopod Biochores,” Stratigr. Geol. Korrelyatsiya 9(6), 17–34 (2001) [Stratigr. Geol. Correlation 9 (6), 540–556 (2001)].Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    L. G. Voronova, N. A. Drozdova, N. V. Esakova, et al., Fossils of the Lower Cambrian of the Mackenzie Mountains (Canada): Proceedings of the Paleontological Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vol. 224 (Nauka, Moscow, 1987) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ch. D. Walcott, “Cambrian Brachiopoda,” Monogr. US Geol. Surv. 51(Parts 1–2), 1–872, 1–363 (1912).Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    A. Williams, “Biomineralization in the Lophophorates,” in Skeletal Biomineralization: Patterns, Processes and Evolutionary Trends, Ed. by J. G. Carter (Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, 1990), Vols. 1–2, pp. 67–82.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    A. Williams et al., Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part H, Brachiopoda Revised, Vol. 1, Ed. R. L. Kaesler (Geol. Soc. Am., Boulder and Univ. of Kansas Press, Lawrence, 1997).Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    A. Williams et al., Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology, Part H, Brachiopoda Revised, Vol. 2, Ed. by R. L. Kaesler (Geol. Soc. Am., Boulder and Univ. of Kansas Press, Lawrence, 2000).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    A. Williams, S. J. Carlson, C. H. C. Brunton, et al., A Supra-Ordinal Classification of the Brachiopoda, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B 351, 1171–1193 (1996).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    S. H. Williams and C. M. Lockley, “Ordovician Inarticulate Brachiopods from Graptolitic Shales at Dob’s Linn, Scotland; Their Morphology and Significance,” J. Paleontol. 57, 391–400 (1983).Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    A. D. Wright and A. E. McClean, “Microbrachiopods and the End-Ordovician Event,” Hist. Biol. 5, 123–129 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    R. Wood, A. Yu. Zhuravlev, and Chimed Tseren Anaaz, “The Ecology of Lower Cambrian Buildups from Zuune Arts, Mongolia: Implications for Early Metazoan Reef Evolution,” Sedimentology 40, 829–858 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    I. T. Zhuravleva, “Early Cambrian Organic Structures within the Siberian Platform,” in Organism and Environment in the Geological Past (Nauka, Moscow, 1966), pp. 61–84 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    I. T. Zhuravleva, K. N. Konyushkov, and A. Yu. Rozanov, Archaeocyathans of Siberia: Bilateral Archaeocyathans (Nauka, Moscow, 1964) [in Russian].Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Paleontological InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations