Optics and Spectroscopy

, Volume 114, Issue 6, pp 929–935 | Cite as

Phthalocyanine identification in paintings by reflectance spectroscopy. A laboratory and in situ study

Laser Optics

Abstract

The importance of identifying pigments using non invasive (n.i.) analyses has gained increasing importance in the field of spectroscopy applied to art conservation and art studies. Among the large set of pigments synthesized and marketed during 20th century, surely phthalocyanine blue and green pigments occupy an important role in the field of painting (including restoration) and printing, thanks to their characteristics like brightness and fastness. This research focused on the most used phthalocyanine blue (PB15:1 and PB15:3) and green pigments (PG7), and on the possibility to identify these organic compounds using a methodology like reflectance spectroscopy in the UV, visible and near IR range (UV-vis-NIR RS), performed easily through portable instruments. Laboratory tests and three examples carried out on real paintings are discussed.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    T. Learner, Analysis of Modern Paints (The Getty Conservaation Institute, Los Angeles, 2005).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    C. Defeyt, P. Vandenabeele, B. Gilbert, J. Van Pevenage, R. Cloots, and D. Strivay, J. Raman Spectrosc. (2012) (doi: 10.1002/jrs.4125).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. Quillen Lomax, M. R. Schilling, and T. J. S. Learner, Proceedings of the Symposium on Modern Paints Uncovered, Ed. by T. J. S. Learner, P. Smithen, J. W. Krueger, and M. R. Schilling (The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 2008), pp. 105–117.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    P. Vandenabeele, L. Moens, H. G. M. Edwards, and R. Dams, J. Raman Spectrosc. 31, 509 (2000).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Bacci, in Modern Analytical Methods in Art and Archaeology, Ed. by E. Ciliberto and G. Spoto (Wiley, Chichester, 2000), pp. 321–360.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Picollo, M. Bacci, A. Casini, F. Lotti, S. Porcinai, B. Radicati, and L. Stefani, in Optical Sensors and Microsystems: New Concepts, Materials, and Technologies, Ed. by S. Martellucci, A. N. Chester, and A. G. Mignani (Springer Verlag, New York, 2000), pp. 259–267.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    S. Bruni, S. Caglio, V. Guglielmi, and G. Poldi, Appl. Phys. A: Materials Science Processing 92, 103 (2008).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    F. H. Moser and A. L. Thomas, Phthalocyanine Compounds (Chapman and Hall, London, 1963).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    W. Herbst and K. Hunger, in Industrial Organic Pigments. Production, Properties, Applications, 3rd ed. (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2004), pp. 422–452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. Quillen Lomax, Rev. Conserv. 6, 19 (2005).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. G. Gettens and G. L. Stout, in Painting Materials. A Short Encyclopaedia (Dover, New York, 1966), pp. 136–137.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    R. Sappok, J. Oil and Colour Chemists’ Association 61, 299 (1978).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Industrial Dyes. Chemistry, Properties, Applications, Ed. by K. Hunger (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, 2003), pp. 68–77.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. Caglio, G. Poldi, and S. Bruni, in Proceedings of the Meeting “Science for Contemporary Art,” Ed. by F. Petrucci (Patron Editore, Bologna, 2012 (CD-rom)).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Scientific Examination for the Investigation of Paintings. A Handbook for Conservator-Restorers, Ed. by M. Galeotti, R. Mazzeo, and D. Pinna (Centro Di, Florence, 2009).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    M. Picollo, M. Bacci, D. Magrini, B. Radicati, G. Trumpy, M. Tsukada, and D. Kunzelman, in Proceedings of the Symposium on Modern Paints Uncovered, Ed. by T. J. S. Learner, P. Smithen, J. W. Krueger, and M. R. Schilling (The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 2008), pp. 118–128.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    R. Johnston-Feller, Color Science in the Examination of Museum Objects. Nondestructive Procedures (The Getty Conservation Institute, Los Angeles, 2001), pp. 226, 286, and 289.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Artists’ Pigments. A Handbook of Their History and Characteristics, Ed. by S. Lake, S. Quillen Lomax, and B. H. Berrie (National Gallery of Art and Archetype Publications, Washington and London, 2007), pp. 179–222.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    M. Elias, C. Chartier, G. Prévot, H. Garay, and C. Vignaud, Mater. Sci. Engin. B 127, 70 (2006).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Storia, conservazione e tecniche nella Libreria Sagramoso in San Bernardino a Verona (History, Conservation and Techniques in the Sagramoso Library in St. Bernardino Church in Verona), Ed. by G. Poldi, D. Sali, and M. Molteni (Zel, Treviso, 2010), pp. 152–163.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy in Forensic Science, Ed. by L. Burgio, J. M. Chalmers, H. G. M. Edwards, and M. D. Hargreaves (Wiley, Chichester, 2012).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.CAV, Università degli Studi di BergamoBergamoItaly
  2. 2.DERALAB SrlSeregno (MB)Italy

Personalised recommendations