Molecular Biology

, Volume 49, Issue 2, pp 275–286 | Cite as

Ameliorative effect of curcumin on aflatoxin B1-induced changes in liver gene expression of Oreochromis niloticus

  • M. E. MahfouzEmail author
Cell Molecular Biology


To evaluate the ameliorative effect of curcumin on dietary aflatoxin-induced changes in the expression of genes in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus liver, the fish were fed with a diet contaminated by 200 ppb of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) with and without curcumin (5 mg/kg diet) for 16 weeks in addition to a negative and positive controls fed with the basal diet and basal diet supplemented with curcumin, respectively. Further, two recovery groups with and without curcumin were tested after 2 more weeks. Relative mRNA expression of genes involved in antioxidant function (superoxide dismutase, SOD), biotransformation (cytochrome P4501A, CYP1A) and immune response (interleukin-1β, IL-1β and transforming growth factor β, TGF-β) were assessed using RT-PCR. Also, fish weight gain and survival rate were determined. Results revealed that AFB1 significantly reduced the survivability and weight gain, while curcumin inclusion improved them. Fish fed with AFB1-contaminated diet showed the up-regulation of CYP1A and down-regulation of SOD, IL-1β and TGF-β. This expression pattern was still evident in the recovery group without curcumin, but to a lesser extent. Supplementation of curcumin ameliorated the overall gene expression close to the control levels. It appears that curcumin exhibited protective effects on AFB1-induced liver toxicity in O. niloticus by moderating oxidative stress, toxin biotransformation, immune response, and hence growth performance.


aflatoxin B1 curcumin gene expression tilapia 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 2007. The State of World. Fisheries and Aquaculture. Rome: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Almeida I.F.M., Martins H.M.L., Santos S.M.O., Freitas M.S., da Costa J.M., D’Almeida Bernardo F.M. 2011. Mycobiota and aflatoxin B1 in feed for farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Toxins. 3, 163–171.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Davila J., Marcial-Martinez M.L., Viana M.T., Vazquez-Duhal R. 2010. The effect of broccoli in diet on the cytochrome P450 activities of tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) during phenol exposure. Aquaculture. 304, 58–65.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Zaitseva G.P., Santerre-Lucas A., Casas-Solis J., Peregrina-Sandova J., León-Sánchez R. 2006. Tilapia Aspectos Biológicosy Productivos, 1st ed. Guadalajara, Mexico: Universidadde Guadalajara Coordinación Editorial.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Murjani G. 2003. Chronic Aflatoxicosis in Fish and Its Relevance to Human Health. Kausalya Ganga, Odisha, India: Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Allcroft R., Camaghan R.B.A. 1963. Toxic products in groundnuts: Biological effects. Chem. Ind. 2, 50–53.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Ashely L.M. 1967. Renal neoplasms in rainbow trout. Bull. Wildl. Dis. Assoc. 3, 86.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Richard J.L., Payne G.A. 2003. Mycotoxins: Risks in Plant, Animal and Human Systems. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology Task Force Report no. 139. Ames, Iowa: EUA.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Robens J.F., Cardwell K. 2003. The costs of mycotoxin management to the USA: Management of aflatoxins in the United States. J. Toxicol. 22, 139–152.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Williams J.H., Phillips T.D., Jolly P.E., Stiles J.K., Jolly C.M., Aggarwal D. 2004. Human aflatoxicosis in developing countries: A review of toxicology, exposure, potential health consequences and interventions. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 80, 1106–1122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Roebuck B.D. 2004. Hyperplasia, partial hepatectomy, and the carcinogenicity of aflatoxin B1. J. Cell Biochem. 91, 243–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kennedy D., Delaney K.A., Koren G. 1998. Mutagens, carcinogens, and teratogens. In: Goldfrank’s Toxicologic Emergencies, 6th ed. Stamford, CT: Appleton and Lange, pp. 262–273.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hussein H.S., Brasel J.M. 2001. Toxicity, metabolism, and impact of mycotoxins on humans and animals. Toxicology. 167, 101–134.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bintvihok A., Thiengnin S., Doi K., Kumagai S. 2002. Residues of aflatoxins in the liver, muscle and eggs of domestic fowls. J. Vet. Med. Sci. 64, 1037–1039.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Puschner B. 2002. Mycotoxins. Vet. Clin. Small Anim. 32, 409–419.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Manning B.B., Li M.H., Robinson E.H. 2005. Aflatoxins from mouldy corn cause no reductions in channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus performance. J. World Aquacult. Soc. 36, 59–67.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Abdelhamid A.M., Khalil F.F., Ragab M.A. 1998. Problem of mycotoxins in fish production. Egypt. J. Nutr. Feeds. 1, 63–71.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Azab R.M., Tawakkol W.M., Hamad A.M., Abou-Elmagd M.K., El-Agrab H.M., Refai M.K. 2005. Detection and estimation of aflatoxin B1 in feed and its biodegradation by bacteria and fungi. Egypt. J. Nat. Toxins. 2, 39–56.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Oguz H., Kurtoglu V., Coskun B. 2000. Preventive efficacy of clinoptilolite in broilers during chronic aflatoxin (50 and 100 ppb) exposure. Res. Vet. Sci. 69, 197–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    El-Nezami H., Polychronaki N., Lee Y., Haskard C., Juvonen R., Salminen S., Mykkanen H. 2004. Chemical moieties and interactions involved in the binding of zearalenone to the surface of lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52, 4577–4581.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Chestnut A.B., Anderson P.D., Cochran M.A., Fribourg H.A., Twinn K.D. 1992. Effects of hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate on fescue toxicosis and mineral absorption. J. Anim. Sci. 70, 2838–2846.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kubena L.F., Harvey R.B., Huff W.E., Ellisalde M.H., Yersin A.G., Phillips T.D., Rottinghaus G. 1993. Efficacy of a hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxin and diacetoxyscirpenol. Poult. Sci. 72, 51–59.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kabak B., Dobson A.D.W., Var I. 2006. Strategies to prevent mycotoxin contamination of food and animal feed: A review. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 46, 593–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Selim K.M., El-hofy H., Khalil R.H. 2013. The efficacy of three mycotoxin adsorbents to alleviate aflatoxin B1-induced toxicity in Oreochromis niloticus. Aquacult. Int. 22, 523–540. doi 0.1007/s10499-013-9661-6Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Diaz D.E., Hagler W.M., Hopkins B.A., Whitlow L.W. 2002. Aflatoxin binders I: In vitro binding assay for aflatoxin B1 by several potential sequestering agents. Mycopathologia. 156, 223–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kriukov V.S., Krupin V.V. 1993. Aflatoxin in the meat of broiler chickens fed toxic mixed feed. Vopr. Pitaniya. 2, 51–55.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    McLeod R., Ellis E.M., Arthur J.R., Neal G.E., Judah D.J., Manson M.M., Hayes J.D. 1997. Protection conferred by selenium deficiency against aflatoxin B1 in the rat is associated with the hepatic expression of an aldo-keto reductase and a glutathione S-transferase subunit that metabolize the mycotoxin. Cancer Res. 57, 4257–4266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Verma R.J., Nair A. 2001. Ameliorative effect of vitamin E on aflatoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the testis of mice. Asian J. Androl. 3, 217–221.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Klein P.J., Van Vleet T.R., Hall J.O., Coulombe R.A. 2003. Effects of dietary butylated hydroxytoluene on aflatoxin B1-relevant metabolic enzymes in turkeys. Food Chem. Toxicol. 41, 671–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Abdelhamid A.M., Sallam A.E., Abd Allah, G.A., El-Samra S.H. 2002. Effect of feeding male rats on 381 aflatoxic diets without or with medicinal herbs (thyme, safflower, ginger, black cumin and/or garlic). Proc. 2nd Conf. Foodborme Contamination and Egyptian’s Health, April 23–24, El-Mansoura, Egypt, pp. 99–121.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mehrim A.I., Abdelhamid A.M., Abo Shosha A.A.M., Salem M.F.I., El-Sharawy M.A.M.M. 2007. Nutritious attempts to detoxify aflatoxic diets of tilapia fish: 2. Clinical, biochemical and histological parameters. J. Arab. Aquacult. Soc. 1, 69–90.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Raju M.V., Rama Rao S.V., Radhika K., Panda A.K. 2005. Effect of amount and source of supplemental dietary vegetable oil on broiler chickens exposed to aflatoxicosis. Br. Poult. Sci. 46, 587–594.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Bintvihok A., Kositcharoenkul S. 2006. Effect of dietary calcium propionate on performance, hepatic enzyme activities and aflatoxin residues in broilers fed a diet containing low levels of aflatoxin B1. Toxicon. 47, 41–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kan K. 2007. Effect of dietary calcium propionate on performance, enzyme activities and aflatoxin residues in broilers fed a diet containing low levels of aflatoxin B1. Toxicon. 49, 1070–1071.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gowda N.K.S., Swamy H.V.L.N., Mahajan P. 2013. Recent advances for control, counteraction and amelioration of potential aflatoxins in animal feeds. In: Aflatoxins: Recent Advances and Future Prospects. Ed. Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh. InTech, pp. 129–140.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kuttan R., Bhanumathy P., Nirmala K, George M.C. 1985. Potential anticancer activity of turmeric (Curcuma longa). Cancer Lett. 29, 197–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ammon H.P.T., Wahl M.A. 1991. Pharmacology of Curcuma longa. Planta Medica. 57, 1–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Azuine M.A., Bhide S.V. 1992. Chemopreventive effect of turmeric against stomach and skin tumors induced by chemical carcinogenesis in Swiss mice. Nutr. Cancer. 17, 77–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ferreira F.D., Kemmelmeier C., Arroteia C.C., da Costa C.L., Mallmann C.A., Janeiro V., Ferreira F.M.D., Mossini S.A.G., Silva E.L., Jr M.M. 2013. Inhibitory effect of the essential oil of Curcuma longa L. and curcumin on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus Link. Food Chem. 136, 789–793.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lee S., Campbell B.C., Russell J., Molyneux R.J., Hasegawa S., Lee H.S. 2001. Inhibitory effects of naturally occurring compounds on aflatoxin B1 biotransformation. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49, 5171–5177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Josephy P.D. 1997. Molecular Toxicology. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Abdel-Wahhab M.A., Saeed A., Hufner A. 2005. NMR and radical scavenging activities of patuletin from Urtica urens L. against aflatoxin B1. Pharm. Biol. 43, 515–525.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Preetha S.P., Kanniappan M., Selvakumar E., Nagaraj M., Varalakshmi P. 2006. Lupeol ameliorates aflatoxin B1-induced peroxidative hepatic damage in rats. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C: Pharmacol. Toxicol. 143, 333–339.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Williams D.E., Lech J.J., Buhler D.R. 1998. Xenobiotics and xenoestrogens in fish: Modulation of cytochrome P450 and carcinogenesis. Mutat. Res. 399, 179–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Meyer J.N., Nacci D.E., di Giulio R.T. 2002. Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus): Heritability of altered expression and relationship to survival in contaminated sediments. Toxicol. Sci. 68, 69–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Moore M.J., Mitrofanov I.V., Valentini S.S., Volkov V.V., Kurbskyi A.V., Zhimbey E.N., Eglinton L.B., Stegeman J.J. 2003. Cytochrome P4501A expression, chemical contaminants and histopathology in roach, goby and sturgeon and chemical contaminants in sediments from the Caspian Sea, Lake Balkhash and the Ily River Delta. Kazakh. Mar. Pollut. Bull. 46, 107–119.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rodriguez-Cervantes C.H., Giron-Perez M.I., Robledo-Marenco M.L., Marin S., Velazquez-Fernandez J.B., Medina-Diaz I.M., Rojas-Garcia A.E., Ramos A.J. 2010. Aflatoxin B1 and its toxic effects on immune response of teleost fishes: a review. World Mycotoxin J. 3, 193–199.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Zou J., Grabowski P.S., Cunningham C., Secombes C.J. 1999. Molecular cloning of interleukin 1beta from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reveals no evidence of an ice cut site. Cytokine. 11, 552–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fujiki K., Shin D.H., Nakao M., Yano T. 2000. 2000. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of carp (Cyprinus carpio) interleukin-1 beta, high affinity immunoglobulin E Fc receptor gamma subunit and serum amyloid A. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 10, 229–242.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Scapigliati G., Buonocore F., Bird S., Zou J., Pelegrin P., Falasca C., Prugnoli D., Secombes C.J. 2001. Phylogeny of cytokines: Molecular cloning and expression analysis of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax interleukin1beta. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 11, 711–726.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Pelegrin P., Garcia-Castillo J., Mulero V., Meseguer J. 2001. Interleukin-1beta isolated from a marine fish reveals up-regulated expression in macrophages following activation with lipopolysaccharide and lymphokines. Cytokine. 16, 67–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lee D.S., Hong S.H., Lee H.J., Jun L.J., Chung J.K., Kim K.H., Jenong H.D. 2006. Molecular cDNA cloning and analysis of the organization and expression of the IL-1beta gene in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. A: Mol. Integr. Physiol. 143, 307–314.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Corripio-Miyar Y., Bird S., Tsamopoulos K., Secombes C.J. 2007. Cloning and expression analysis of two pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1 beta and IL-8, in haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Mol. Immunol. 44, 1361–1373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Dinarello C.A. 1997. Interleukin-1. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 8, 253–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Zhang H.Y., Phan S.H. 1999. Inhibition of myofibroblast apoptosis by transforming growth factor beta (1). Am. J. Resp. Cell. Mol. Biol. 21, 658–665.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Harms C.A., Ottinger C., Kennedy-Stoskopf S. 2000. Correlation of transforming growth factor-b messenger RNA (TGF-b mRNA) expression with cellularimmuno-assays in triamcinolone-treated captive hybrid striped bass. J. Aquat. Anim. Health. 12, 9–17.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Zuckerman S.H., Panousis C., Evans G. 2001. TGFbeta reduced binding of high-density lipoproteins in murine macrophages and macrophage-derived foam cells. Atherosclerosis. 155, 79–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Haddad G., Hanington P.C., Wilson E.C., Grayfer L., Belosevic M. 2008. Molecular and functional characterization of goldfish (Carassius auratus L.) transforming growth factor beta. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 32, 654–663.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Kadowaki T., Yasui Y., Takahashi Y., Kohchi C., Soma G., Inagawa H. 2009. Comparative immunological analysis of innate 455 immunity activation after oral administration of wheat fermented extract to teleost fish. Anticancer Res. 29, 4871–4877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chavez-Sanchez M.C., Palacios M.C.A, Moreno O.I. 1994. Pathological effects of feeding young Oreochromis niloticus diets supplemented with different levels of aflatoxin B1. Aquaculture. 127, 49–60.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Diab A.S., Abusead S.M.M., Abou El Magd M.M. 1998. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on reproductive traits in O. niloticus and O. aureus and its control. Proc. 5th Int. Symp. on Tilapia Aquaculture. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, September 3–7.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Tuan N.A. 2001. Response of Nile tilapia fed diets containing selected mycotoxins. http://www.egsz.or/BilogicalCurrentContent/Zoology?Comparative%20Physiology/TOXICOLOGY.465_html.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    El-Boshy M.E., El-Ashram A.M.M., Abd-El-Ghany N.A. 2008. Effect of dietary beta-1,3-glucan on immunomodulation on diseased Oreochromis niloticus experimentally infected with aflatoxin B1. 8th International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, pp. 1109–1127.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Panprommin D., Vanichkul K., Panprommin N., Areechon N. 2011. Effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa Linn.) extract on the expression of cytokine genes in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linn.). Proc. 49th Kasetsart University Annual Conf., Kasetsart University, Thailand, vol. 3, pp. 416–425.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Yarru L.P. 2008. Effects of aflatoxin on hepatic gene expression in a poultry model, MS Thesis, Columbia, MO: Univ. of Missouri-Columbia.Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sambrook J., Russell D. 2001. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 3rd ed. Cold Spring Harbor, NY: Cold Spring Harbor Lab. Press.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Abramoff M.D., Magelhaes P.J., Ram S.J. 2004. Image processing with ImageJ. Biophotonics Int. 11, 36–42.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Santacroce M.P., Conversano M.C., Casalino E., Lai O., Zizzadoro C., Centoducati G., Crescenzo G. 2008. Aflatoxins in aquatic species: Metabolism, toxicity and perspectives. Rev. Fish Biol. Fisher. 18, 99–130.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Deng S.X., Tian L.X., Liu F.J., Jin S.J., Liang G.Y., Yang H.J., Du Z.Y., Liu Y.J. 2010. Toxic effects and residue of aflatoxin B1 in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) during long-term dietary exposure. Aquaculture. 307, 233–240.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Denissenko M.F., Cahill J., Koudriakova T.B., Gerber N., Pfeifer G.P. 1999. Quantitation and mapping of aflatoxin B1-induced DNA damage in genomic DNA using aflatoxin B1-8,9-epoxide and microsomal activation systems. Mutat. Res. 425, 205–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Huang Y., Han D., Zhu X., Yang Y., Jin J., Chen Y., Xie S. 2011. Response and recovery of gibel carp from subchronic oral administration of aflatoxin B1. Aquaculture. 319, 89–97.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Bauer D.H., Lee D.J., Sinnhuber R.O. 1969. Acute toxicity of aflatoxin B1 and G1 in the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Toxicol. Appl. Pharmcol. 15, 415–419.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Tuan N.A., Grizzle J.M., Lovell R.T., Manning B.B., Rottinghaus G.E. 2002. Growth and hepatic lesions of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed diets containing aflatoxin B1. Aquaculture. 212, 311–319.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Cagauan G.A., Tayaban R.H., Somga J.R., Bartolome R.M. 2004. Effect of aflatoxin-contaminated feed in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). In: Proc. 6th Int. Symp. on Tilapia Aquaculture. Eds Remedios R.B., Mair G.C., Fitzsimmons K. Manila, Pilippines, pp. 172–178.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Zaki M.S., Sharaf N.E., Rashad H., Mastala S.O., Fawzy Q.M. 2008. Diminution of aflatoxicosis in Tilapia nilotica fish by dietary supplementation with fix in toxin and Nigella sativa oil. Am. Euras. J. Agric. Environ. Sci. 3, 211–215.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Zychowski K.E., Pohlenz C., Mays T., Romoser A., Hume M., Buentello A., Gatlin D.M. III, Phillips T.D. 2013. The effect of NovaSil dietary supplementation on the growth and health performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed aflatoxin-B1 contaminated feed. Aquaculture. 376, 117–123.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Huff W.E., Harvey R.B., Kubena L.F., Rottinghaus G.E. 1988. Toxic synergism between aflatoxin and T-2 toxin in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 67, 1418–1423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ortatatli M., Ouz H. 2001. Ameliorative effects of dietary clinoptilolite on pathological changes in broiler chickens during aflatoxicosis. Res. Vet. Sci. 71, 59–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Verma J., Johri T.S., Swain B.K., Ameena S. 2004. Effect of graded levels of aflatoxin, ochratoxin and their combinations on the performance and immune response of broilers. Br. Poult. Sci. 45, 512–518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Li Y., Huang T.T., Carlson E.J. 1995. Dilated cardiomyopathy and neonatal lethality in mutant mice lacking manganese superoxide dismutase. Nat. Genet. 11, 376–381.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Kizaki M., Sakashita A., Karmakar A. 1997. Regulation of superoxide dismutase and other antioxidant genes in normal and leukaemic haemopoietic cells and their relationship to cytotoxicity by tumor necrosis factor. Blood. 82, 1142–1150.Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    MacMillan-Crow L.A., Crow J.P., Thompson J.A. 1998. Peroxynitrite mediated inactivation of manganese superoxide dismutase involves nitration and oxidation of critical tyrosine residue. Biochemistry. 37, 1613–1622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Meier B., Scherk C., Schmidt M. 1998. pH dependent inhibition by azide and fluoride of the iron superoxide dismutase from Propionibacterium shennanii. Biochem. J. 331, 403–407.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Yamakura F., Fujimura T.H. 1998. Inactivation of manganese superoxide dismutase by peroxynitrite is caused by exclusive nitration of tyrosine 34 to 3 nitrotyrosine. J. Biol. Chem. 273, 14085–14089.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Afonso V., Champy R., Mitrovic D., Collin P., Lomri A. 2007. Reactive oxygen species and superoxide dismutases: Role in joint diseases. Joint Bone Spine. 74, 324–329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Yarru L.P., Settivari R.S., Gowda N.K.S., Antoniou E., Ledoux D.R., Rottinghaus G.E. 2009b. Effects of turmeric (Curcuma longa) on the expression of hepatic genes associated with biotransformation, antioxidant, and immune systems in broiler chicks fed aflatoxin. Poult. Sci. 88, 2620–2627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Wang F., Shu G., Peng X., Fang J., Chen K., Cui H., Chen Z., Zuo Z., Deng J., Geng Y., Lai W. 2013. Protective effects of sodium selenite against aflatoxin B1-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in broiler spleen. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health. 10, 2834–2844.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Marczuk-Krynicka D., Hryniewiecki T., Piatek J. 2003. The effect of brief food withdrawal on the level of free radicals and other parameters of oxidative status in the liver. Med. Sci. Mon. 3, 131–135.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Mortellini R., Foresti R., Bassi R., Green C.J. 2000. Curcumin, an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent, induces heme oxygenase-1 and protects endothelial cells against oxidative stress. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 28, 1303–1312.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Cheng H., Liu W., Ai X. 2005. Protective effect of curcumin on myocardial ischemial reperfusion injury in rats. Zhong Yao Cai. 28, 920–922.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sharma O.P. 1976. Antioxidant activity of curcumin and related compounds. Biochem. Pharmacol. 25, 1811–1812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mathuria N., Verma R.J. 2007. Amelioration effect of curcumin on aflatoxin-induced toxicity in DNA, RNA and protein in liver and kidney of mice. Acta Pol. Pharm.-Drug. Res. 64, 497–502.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Godard C.A.J, Leaver M.J., Said M.R., Dickerson R.L., George S., Stegeman J.J. 2000. Identification of cytochrome P450 1B-like sequences in two teleost fish species (scup, Stenotomus chrysops, and plaice, Pleuronectes platessa) and in cetacean (striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba). Mar. Environ. Res. 50, 7–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kumar H., Bhaskarannair K., Kuttan R. 2006. Inhibition of drug metabolizing enzymes (cytochrome P450) in vitro as well as in vivo by Phyllanthus amarus Schum and Thonn. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 29, 1310–1313.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Williams T.D., Lee J.S., Sheader D.L., Chipman J.K. 2000. The cytochrome P4501A gene (CYP1A) from European flonder (Platichthys flesus): Analysis of regulatory regions and development of a dual luciferase reporter gene system. Mar. Environ. Res. 50, 1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Mc Clain J.S., Oris J.T., Burton G.A., Lattier D. 2003. Laboratory and field validation of multiple molecular biomarkers of contaminant exposure in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 22, 361–370.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Wild C.P., Montesano R. 2009. A model of interaction: Aflatoxins and hepatitis viruses in liver cancer aetiology and prevention. Cancer Lett. 286, 22–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wu F., Khlangwiset P. 2010. Health economic impacts and cost-effectiveness of aflatoxin reduction strategies in Africa: Case studies in biocontrol and postharvest interventions. Food Add. Cont. 27, 496–509.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Chris K.C., Yeung W.H.Y, Woo P.S., Wong M.H. 2001. Specific expression of cytochrome P4501A1 gene in gill, intestine and liver of tilapia exposed to coastal sediments. Aquat. Toxicol. 54, 69–80.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Bhaskarannair K., Kumar H., Kuttan R. 2006. Inhibition of drug metabolizing enzymes (Cytochrome P450) in vitro as well as in vivo by Phyllanthus amarus Schum and Thonn. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 29, 1310–1313.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hassanin A.A.I., Kaminishi Y., Osman M.M.M., Abdel-Wahad Z.H., El-Kady M.A.H., Itakura T. 2009. Development and application of a real-time quantitative PCR assay for determining expression of benzo-a-pyrene-Inducible cytochrome P450 1A in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Afr. J. Biotech. 8, 6588–6595.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Giron-Perez M.I., Santerre A., Gonzalez-Jaime F., Casas-Solis J., Hernandez-Coronado M., Peregrina-Sandoval J., Takemura A., Zaitseva G. 2007. Immunotoxicity and hepatic function evaluation in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to diazinon. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 23, 760–769.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Zou J., Holland J., Pleguezuelos O., Cunningham C., Secombes C.J. 2000. Factors influencing the expression of interleukin-1 beta in cultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) leucocytes. Dev. Comp. Immunol. 24, 575–582.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Lu D.Q., Bei J.X., Feng L.N., Zhang Y., Liu X.C., Wang L., Chen J.L., Lin H.R. 2008. Interleukin-1beta gene in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides: Molecular cloning, expression, biological activities and signal transduction. Mol. Immunol. 45, 857–867.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Seppola M., Larsen A.N., Steiro K., Robertsen B., Jensen I. 2008. Characterization and expression analysis of the interleukin genes, IL-1beta, IL-8 and IL-10, in Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua L.). Mol. Immunol. 45, 887–897.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Reyes-Cerpa S., Reyes-Lopez F.E., Toro-Ascuy D., Ibanez J., Maisey K., Sandino A.M., Imarai M. 2012. IPNV modulation of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression in Atlantic salmon might help the establishment of infection and persistence. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 32, 291–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Pier A.C., Mc Loughlin M.E., Richard J.L., Baetz A., Dahfren R.R. 1985. In utero transfer of aflatoxin and selected effects in neonatal pigs. In: Trichothecenes and Other Mycotoxins. Ed. Lacey J. New York: Wiley, pp. 495–506.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Neiger R.D., Hurley D.J., Hurley D.J., Higgins K.F., Rottinghaus G.E., Starh H. 1994. The short-term effect of low concentrations of dietary aflatoxin and R-2 toxin on mallard ducklings. Avian Dis. 38, 738–743.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Silvotti L., Petterino C., Bonomi A. Cabassi E. 1997. Immunotoxicological effects on piglets of feeding sows diets containing aflatoxins. Vet. Rec. 141, 469–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Celik I., Oguz H., Demet O., Donmez H.H., Boydak M., Sur E. 2000. Efficacy of polyvinyl-polypyrrolidone in reducing the immunotoxicity of aflatoxin in growing broilers. Br. Poult. Sci. 41, 430–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Shivachandra S.B., Sah R.L., Singh S.D., Kataria J.M., Manimaran K. 2003. Immunosuppression in broiler chicks fed aflatoxin and inoculated with fowl adenovirus serotype-4 (FAV-4) associated with hydropericardium syndrome. Vet. Res. Commun. 27, 39–51.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Shephard G.S. 2008. Impact of mycotoxins on human health in developing countries. Food Addit. Contam. 25, 146–151.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Marin D.E., Taranu I., Bunaciu R.P., Pascale F., Tudor D.S., Avram N., Sarca M., Cureu I., Criste R.D., Suta V., Oswald I.P. 2002. Changes in performance, blood parameters, humoral and cellular immune responses in weanling piglets exposed to low doses of aflatoxin. J. Anim. Sci. 80, 1250–1257.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Yarru L.P., Settivari R.S., Antoniou E., Ledoux D.R., Rottinghaus G.E. 2009. Toxicological and gene expression analysis of the impact of aflatoxin B1 on hepatic function of male broiler chicks. Poult. Sci. 88, 360–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Richard J.L., Thurston J.R. 1975. Effect of aflatoxin on phagocytosis of Aspergillus fumigatus spores by rabbit alveolar macrophages. Appl. Microbiol. 30, 44–77.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Surai P.F. 2002. Natural antioxidants and mycotoxins. In: Natural Antioxidants in Avian Nutrition and Reproduction. Nottingham, UK: Nottingham Univ. Press, pp. 455–509.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Ayoub M.M., El-Far A.H., Taha N.M., Korshom M.A., Mandour A.A., Abdel-Hamid H.S., El-Neweshy M.S. 2011. The biochemical protective role of some 604 herbes against aflatoxicosis in ducklings: 1. Turmeric. Lucr ri tiin ifice, Ser. Zootehnie. 55, 150–159.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Osweiler G.D., Carson T.L., Buck W.B. VanGelder G.A. 1976. Clinical and Diagnostic Veterinary Toxicology, 3rd ed. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Chou C.C., Marth E.H. 1976. Distribution of aflatoxin B1 in tissue of mink (Mustela vison). Toxicology. 5, 351–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Chen C., Pearson A.M., Coleman T.H., Gray J.I., Pestka J.J., Aust S.D. 1984. Tissue deposition and clearance of aflatoxins from broiler chickens fed a contaminated diet. Food Chem. Toxicol. 22, 447–451.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Chen C., Pearson A.M., Coleman T.H., Gray J.I., Wolzak A.M. 1985. Broiler aflatoxicosis with recovery after 613 replacement of the contaminated diet. Br. Poult. Sci. 26, 65–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Choi K., Lehmann D.W., Harms C.A., Law J.M. 2007. Acute hypoxia-reperfusion triggers immunocompromise in Nile tilapia. J. Aquat. Anim. Health. 19, 128–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Choi K. 2004. Modulation of immune function parameters in fish caused by sudden environmental changes. Ph.D. Thesis, Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Wang L., Liang X.F., Liao W.Q., Lei L.M., Han B.P. 2006. Structural and functional characterization of microcystin detoxification-related liver genes in a phytoplanktivorous fish, Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C: Toxicol. Pharmacol. 144, 216–227.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Zoology Department, Faculty of ScienceKafrelsheikh UniversityKafrelsheikhEgypt

Personalised recommendations