Molecular Biology

, Volume 42, Issue 5, pp 814–825

Lentiviral vectors

Devoted the Memory of Lev L’vovich Kisselev


The delivery of genetic material to mammalian cells is of great importance for modern fundamental biology, biomedicine, biotechnology, agriculture, and veterinary medicine. The development of new efficient techniques of gene transfer to human cells led to the advent of gene therapy, a novel approach to treating severe metabolic disorders, some viral infections (including HIV infection), autoimmune diseases, and genetic defects causing cancer. The review considers the main principles of constructing gene transfer and expression systems based on lentiviruses, a powerful tool for human gene therapy and transgenic research, with a special focus on the genome structure and life cycle of lentiviruses and the design and safety of lentiviral vector systems.

Key words

gene transfer gene expression retroviruses lentiviruses human immunodeficiency virus type 1 lentiviral vectors gene therapy 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Seroogy C.M., Fathman C.G. 2000. The application of gene therapy in autoimmune diseases. Gene Ther. 7, 9–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kohn D.B., Bauer G., Rice C.R., et al. 1999. A clinical trial of retroviral-mediated transfer of a rev-responsive element decoy gene into CD34(+) cells from the bone marrow of human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected children. Blood. 94, 368–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nemunaitis J., Fong T., Robbins J.M., et al. 1999. Phase I trial of interferon-γ(IFN-γ) retroviral vector administered intratumorally to patients with metastatic melanoma. Cancer Gene Ther. 6, 322–330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Shand N., Weber F., Mariani L., et al. 1999. A phase 1–2 clinical trial of gene therapy for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme by tumor transduction with the herpes simplex thymidine kinase gene followed by ganciclovir. GLI328 European-Canadian Study Group. Hum. Gene Ther. 10, 2325–2335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chang M.I., Panorchan P., Dobrowsky T.M., et al. 2005. Single-molecule analysis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 gp120-receptor interactions in living cells. J. Virol. 79, 14748–14755.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Golding H., Zaitseva M., de Rosny E., et al. 2002. Dissection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry with neutralizing antibodies to gp41 fusion intermediates. J. Virol. 76, 6780–6790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Pages J.C., Bru T.J. 2004. Toolbox for retrovectorologists. Gene Med. 6, S67–S82.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Depienne C., Mousnier A., Leh H., et al. 2001. Characterization of the nuclear import pathway for HIV-1 integrase. J. Biol. Chem. 276, 18102–18107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Piller S.C., Caly L., Jans D.A. 2003. Nuclear import of the pre-integration complex (PIC): The Achilles heel of HIV? Curr. Drug Targets. 4, 409–429.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nakielny S., Dreyfuss G. 1999. Transport of proteins and RNAs in and out of the nucleus. Cell. 99, 677–690.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Haffar O.K., Popov S., Dubrovsky L., et al. 2000. Two nuclear localization signals in the HIV-1 matrix protein regulate nuclear import of the HIV-1 pre-integration complex. J. Mol. Biol. 299, 359–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Sherman M.P., de Noronha C.M., Eckstein L.A., et al. 2003. Nuclear export of Vpr is required for efficient replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in tissue macrophages. J. Virol. 77, 7582–7589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Goh W.C., Rogel M.E., Kinsey C.M., et al. 1998. HIV-1 Vpr increases viral expression by manipulation of the cell cycle: A mechanism for selection of Vpr in vivo. Nature Med. 4, 65–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Li L., Olvera J.M., Yoder K.E., Mitchell R.S., et al. 2001. Role of the non-homologous DNA end joining pathway in the early steps of retroviral infection. EMBO J. 20, 3272–3281.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schroder A.R., Shinn P., Chen H., Berry C., et al. 2002. HIV-1 integration in the human genome favors active genes and local hotspots. Cell. 110, 521–529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Das S.R., Jameel S. 2005. Biology of the HIV Nef protein. Ind. J. Med. Res. 121, 315–332.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Brady J., Kashanchi F. 2005 Tat gets the “Green” light on transcription initiation. Retrovirology. 2, 1–8.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Henriet S., Richer D., Bernacchi S., et al. 2005. Cooperative and specific binding of Vif to the 5′ region of HIV-1 genomic RNA. J. Mol. Biol. 354, 55–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lever A.M., Strappe P.M., Zhao J. 2004. Lentiviral vectors. J. Biomed. Sci. 11, 439–449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mikaelian I., Krieg M., Gait M.J., Karn J. 1996. Interactions of INS (CRS) elements and the splicing machinery regulate the production of Rev-responsive mRNAs. J. Mol. Biol. 257, 246–264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zufferey R., Nagy D. 1997. Multiply attenuated lentiviral vector achieves efficient gene delivery in vivo. Nature Biotechnol. 15, 871–875.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Mangeot P.E., Negre D. 2000. Development of minimal lentivirus vectors derived from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac251) and their use for gene transfer into human dendritic cells. J. Virol. 74, 8307–8315.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Poeschla E.M., Wong-Staal F. 1998. Efficient transduction of nondividing human cells by feline immunodeficiency virus lentiviral vectors. Nature Med. 4, 354–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Berkowitz R., Ilves H. 2001. Construction and molecular analysis of gene transfer systems derived from bovine immunodeficiency virus. J. Virol. 75, 3371–3382.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Mselli-Lakhal L., Favier C. 1998. Defective RNA packaging is responsible for low transduction efficiency of CAEV-based vectors. Arch. Virol. 143, 681–695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Olsen J.C. 1998. Gene transfer vectors derived from equine infectious anemia virus. Gene Ther. 5, 1481–1487.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Metharom P., Takyar S. 2000. Novel bovine lentiviral vectors based on Jembrana disease virus. J. Gene Med. 2, 176–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stewart S.A., Dykxhoorn D.M. 2003. Lentivirus-delivered stable gene silencing by RNAi in primary cells. RNA. 9, 493–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Carroll R., Lin J.T. 1994. A human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-based retroviral vector system utilizing stable HIV-1 packaging cell lines. J. Virol. 68, 6047–6051.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Blomer U., Naldini L., Kafri T., et al. 1997. Highly efficient and sustained gene transfer in adult neurons with a lentivirus vector. J. Virol. 71, 6641–6649.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kafri T., Blomer U. 1997. Sustained expression of genes delivered directly into liver and muscle by lentiviral vectors. Nature Genet. 17, 314–317.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Haselhorst D., Kaye J.F. 1998. Development of cell lines stably expressing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 proteins for studies in encapsidation and gene transfer. J. Gen. Virol. 79, 231–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Farson D., Witt R. 2001. A new-generation stable inducible packaging cell line for lentiviral vectors. Hum. Gene Ther. 12, 981–997.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sparacio S., Pfeiffer T. 2001. Generation of a flexible cell line with regulatable, high-level expression of HIV Gag-pol particles capable of packaging HIV-derived vectors. Mol. Ther. 3, 602–612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ikeda Y., Takeuchi Y. 2003. Continuous high-titer HIV-1 vector production. Nature Biotechnol. 21, 569–572.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Manilla P., Rebello T., Afable C., et al. 2005. Regulatory considerations for novel gene therapy products: A review of the process leading to the first clinical lentiviral vector. Hum. Gene Ther. 16, 17–25.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hanna Z., Kay D.G. 1998. Nef harbors a major determinant of pathogenicity for an AIDS-like disease induced by HIV-1 in transgenic mice. Cell. 95, 163–175.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bukrinsky M., Adzhubei A. 1999. Viral protein R of HIV-1. Rev. Med. Virol. 9, 39–49.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Piguet V., Schwartz O. 1999. The downregulation of CD4 and MHC-I by primate lentiviruses: A paradigm for the modulation of cell surface receptors. Immunol. Rev. 168, 51–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Camaur D., Trono D. 1996. Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Vif particle incorporation. J. Virol. 70, 6106–6111.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pandori M.W., Fitch N.J. 1996. Producer-cell modification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: Nef is a virion protein. J. Virol. 70, 4283–4290.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sato A., Yoshimoto J. 1996. Evidence for direct association of Vpr and matrix protein p17 within the HIV-1 virion. Virology. 220, 208–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Dull T., Zufferey R. 1998. A third-generation lentivirus vector with a conditional packaging system. J. Virol. 72, 8463–8471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rossi G.R., Mautino M.R. 2003. High-efficiency lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer into murine macrophages and activated splenic B lymphocytes. Hum. Gene Ther. 14, 385–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chinnasamy D., Chinnasamy N. 2000. Lentiviral-mediated gene transfer into human lymphocytes: Role of HIV-1 accessory proteins. Blood. 96, 1309–1316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kim V.N., Mitrophanous K. 1998. Minimal requirement for a lentivirus vector based on human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J. Virol. 72, 811–816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gasmi M., Glynn J. 1999. Requirements for efficient production and transduction of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-based vectors. J. Virol. 73, 1828–1834.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mautino M.R., Keiser N. 2000. Improved titers of HIV-based lentiviral vectors using the SRV-1 constitutive transport element. Gene Ther. 7, 1421–1424.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kotsopoulou E., Kim V.N. 2000. A Rev-independent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-based vector that exploits a codon-optimized HIV-1 gag-pol gene. J. Virol. 74, 4839–4852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wagner R., Graf M. 2000. Rev-independent expression of synthetic gag-pol genes of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and simian immunodeficiency virus: Implications for the safety of lentiviral vectors. Hum. Gene Ther. 11, 2403–2413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Wu X., Wakefield J.K. 2000. Development of a novel trans-lentiviral vector that affords predictable safety. Mol. Ther. 2, 47–55.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cherepanov P., Pluymers W. 2000. High-level expression of active HIV-1 integrase from a synthetic gene in human cells. FASEB J. 14, 1389–1399.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Corbeau P., Kraus G. 1998. Transduction of human macrophages using a stable HIV-1/HIV-2-derived gene delivery system. Gene Ther. 5, 99–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Stitz J., Muhlebach M.D. 2001. A novel lentivirus vector derived from apathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus. Virology. 291, 191–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Haapala D.K., Robey W.G. 1985. Isolation from cats of an endogenous type C virus with a novel envelope glycoprotein. J. Virol. 53, 827–833.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Danos O., Mulligan R.C. 1988. Safe and efficient generation of recombinant retroviruses with amphotropic and ecotropic host ranges. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 85, 6460–6464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Reeves L., Duffy L. 2002. Detection of ecotropic replication-competent retroviruses: Comparison of s(+)/l(−) and marker rescue assays. Hum. Gene Ther. 13, 1783–1790.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Escarpe P., Zayek N. 2003. Development of a sensitive assay for detection of replication-competent recombinant lentivirus in large-scale HIV-based vector preparations. Mol. Ther. 8, 332–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Sastry L., Xu Y. 2003. Certification assays for HIV-1-based vectors: Frequent passage of gag sequences without evidence of replication-competent viruses. Mol. Ther. 8, 830–839.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hacein-Bey-Abina S., von Kalle C. 2003. LMO2-associated clonal T cell proliferation in two patients after gene therapy for SCID-X1. Science. 302, 415–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Bushman F., Lewinski M. 2005. Genome-wide analysis of retroviral DNA integration. Nature Rev. Microbiol. 3, 848–858.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hacein-Bey-Abina S., von Kalle C. 2003. A serious adverse event after successful gene therapy for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. N. Engl. J. Med. 348, 255–256.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Trono D. 2003. Virology. Picking the right spot. Science. 300, 1670–1671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wu X., Li Y. 2003. Transcription start regions in the human genome are favored targets for MLV integration. Science. 300, 1749–1751.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Cavazzana-Calvo M., Hacein-Bey S. 2000. Gene therapy of human severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID)-X1 disease. Science. 288, 669–672.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Schroder A.R., Shinn P. 2002. HIV-1 integration in the human genome favors active genes and local hotspots. Cell. 110, 521–529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Han Y., Lassen K. 2004. Resting CD4 + T cells from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals carry integrated HIV-1 genomes within actively transcribed host genes. J. Virol. 78, 6122–6133.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Zufferey R., Dull T. 1998. Self-inactivating lentivirus vector for safe and efficient in vivo gene delivery. J. Virol. 72, 9873–9880.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Iwakuma T., Cui Y. 1999. Self-inactivating lentiviral vectors with U3 and U5 modifications. Virology. 261, 120–132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Zaiss A.K., Son S. 2002. RNA 3′ readthrough of oncoretrovirus and lentivirus: Implications for vector safety and efficacy. J. Virol. 76, 7209–7219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Swain A., Coffin J.M. 1992. Mechanism of transduction by retroviruses. Science. 255, 841–845.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Zhang Q.Y., Clausen P.A. 1998. Mutation of polyadenylation signals generates murine retroviruses that produce fused virus-cell RNA transcripts at high frequency. Virology. 241, 80–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Page K.A., Landau N.R. 1990. Construction and use of a human immunodeficiency virus vector for analysis of virus infectivity. J. Virol. 64, 5270–5276.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Landau N.R., Page K.A. 1991. Pseudotyping with human T-cell leukemia virus type I broadens the human immunodeficiency virus host range. J. Virol. 65, 162–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Kavanaugh M.P., Miller D.G. 1994. Cell-surface receptors for gibbon ape leukemia virus and amphotropic murine retrovirus are inducible sodium-dependent phosphate symporters. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 91, 7071–7075.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Akkina R.K., Walton R.M. 1996. High-efficiency gene transfer into CD34+ cells with a human immunodeficiency virus type 1-based retroviral vector pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus envelope glycoprotein G. J. Virol. 70, 2581–2585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Naldini L., Blomer U. 1996. In vivo gene delivery and stable transduction of nondividing cells by a lentiviral vector. Science. 272, 263–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Altstein A.D., Zhdanov V.M., Omelchenko T.N., et al. 1976. Phenotypic mixing of vesicular stomatitis virus and D-type oncornavirus. Int. J. Cancer. 15, 780–784.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Schnitzer T.J., Weiss R.A., Zavada J. 1977. Pseudotypes of vesicular stomatitis virus with the envelope properties of mammalian and primate retroviruses. J. Virol. 23, 449–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Burns J.C., Friedmann T. 1993. Vesicular stomatitis virus G glycoprotein pseudotyped retroviral vectors: concentration to very high titer and efficient gene transfer into mammalian and nonmammalian cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 90, 8033–8037.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Schlegel R., Tralka T.S. 1983. Inhibition of VSV binding and infectivity by phosphatidylserine: Is phosphatidylserine a VSV-binding site? Cell. 32, 639–646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Coil D.A., Miller A.D. 2004. Phosphatidylserine is not the cell surface receptor for vesicular stomatitis virus. J. Virol. 78, 10920–10926.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Aiken C. 1997. Pseudotyping human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by the glycoprotein of vesicular stomatitis virus targets HIV-1 entry to an endocytic pathway and suppresses both the requirement for Nef and the sensitivity to cyclosporin A. J. Virol. 71, 5871–5877.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Ory D.S., Neugeboren B.A. 1996. A stable human-derived packaging cell line for production of high titer retrovirus/vesicular stomatitis virus G pseudotypes. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 93, 11400–11406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Cronin J., Zhang X.Y. 2005. Altering the tropism of lentiviral vectors through pseudotyping. Curr. Gene Ther. 5, 387–398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Stein C.S., Martins I. 2005. The lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus envelope glycoprotein targets lentiviral gene transfer vector to neural progenitors in the murine brain. Mol. Ther. 11, 382–389.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kobinger G.P., Weiner D.J. 2001. Filovirus-pseudotyped lentiviral vector can efficiently and stably transduce airway epithelia in vivo. Nature Biotechnol. 19, 225–230.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Verhoeyen E., Cosset F.L. 2004. Surface-engineering of lentiviral vectors. J. Gene Med. 6, 83–94.Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Richard E., Mendez M. 2001. Gene therapy of a mouse model of protoporphyria with a self-inactivating erythroid-specific lentiviral vector without preselection. Mol. Ther. 4, 331–338.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Cui Y., Golob J. 2002. Targeting transgene expression to antigen-presenting cells derived from lentivirus-transduced engrafting human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Blood. 99, 399–408.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    De Palma M., Venneri M.A. 2003. In vivo targeting of tumor endothelial cells by systemic delivery of lentiviral vectors. Hum. Gene Ther. 14, 1193–1206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Lai Z., Brady R.O. 2002. Gene transfer into the central nervous system in vivo using a recombinant lentivirus vector. J. Neurosci. Res. 67, 363–371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Lu X., Humeau L. 2004. Safe two-plasmid production for the first clinical lentivirus vector that achieves >99% transduction in primary cells using a one-step protocol. J. Gene Med. 6, 963–973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Levine B.L., Humeau L.M. 2006. Gene transfer in humans using a conditionally replicating lentiviral vector. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 103, 17372–17377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Puthenveetil G., Scholes J. 2004. Successful correction of the human β-thalassemia major phenotype using a lentiviral vector. Blood. 1104, 3445–3453.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Galimi F., Noll M. 2002. Gene therapy of Fanconi anemia: Preclinical efficacy using lentiviral vectors. Blood. 100, 2732–2736.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Kordower J.H., Emborg M.E. 2000. Neurodegeneration prevented by lentiviral vector delivery of GDNF in primate models of Parkinson’s disease. Science. 290, 767–773.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Consiglio A., Quattrini A. 2001. In vivo gene therapy of metachromatic leukodystrophy by lentiviral vectors: Correction of neuropathology and protection against learning impairments in affected mice. Nature Med. 7, 310–316.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Stein C.S., Kang Y. 2001. In vivo treatment of hemophilia A and mucopolysaccharidosis type VII using nonprimate lentiviral vectors. Mol. Ther. 3, 850–856.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Kobinger G.P., Louboutin J.P. 2003. Correction of the dystrophic phenotype by in vivo targeting of muscle progenitor cells. Hum. Gene Ther. 14, 1441–1449.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Ikawa M., Tergaonkar V. 2002. Restoration of spermatogenesis by lentiviral gene transfer: Offspring from infertile mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 99, 7524–7529.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Lois C., Hong E.J. 2002. Germline transmission and tissue-specific expression of transgenes delivered by lentiviral vectors. Science. 295, 868–872.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Pfeifer A., Ikawa M. 2002. Transgenesis by lentiviral vectors: Lack of gene silencing in mammalian embryonic stem cells and preimplantation embryos. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 99, 2140–2145.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hamaguchi I., Woods N.B. 2000. Lentivirus vector gene expression during ES cell-derived hematopoietic development in vitro. J. Virol. 74, 10778–10784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hofmann A., Kessler B. 2003. Efficient transgenesis in farm animals by lentiviral vectors. EMBO J. 4, 1054–1060.Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    McGrew M.J., Sherman A. 2004. Efficient production of germline transgenic chickens using lentiviral vectors. EMBO J. 5, 728–733.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Pfeifer A. 2004. Lentiviral transgenesis. Transgenic Res. 13, 513–522.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© MAIK Nauka 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. V. Spirin
    • 1
  • A. E. Vilgelm
    • 1
  • V. S. Prassolov
    • 1
  1. 1.Engelhardt Institute of Molecular BiologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations