Exometabolites the Penicillium Fungi Isolated from Various High-Latitude Ecosystems
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Secondary metabolites of 25 Penicillium strains isolated from high-latitude ecosystems (upper layer of Antarctic soils and Arctic permafrost deposits) were analyzed. Out of the studied strains, 80% were found to produce secondary metabolites belonging to benzodiazepine alkaloids (anacin, cyclopenin, and cyclopeptin), quinoline alkaloids (viridicatin and 3-methoxyviridicatin), diketopiperazine alkaloids (aurantiamine, 3,12-dihydroroquefortine, roquefortine and rugulosuvin B), polycyclic indole alkaloids (communesin B and chаetoglobosine A), clavine ergot alkaloids (rugulovasins A and B, festuclavine, fumigaclavines A and B, and cyclopiazonic acid), polyketides (mycophenolic acid and citreoviridin), terpenes (andrastins A and B and phomenone), and N-acetyltriptamine. Most strains of the Penicillium subgenus isolated from anthropogenically impaired upper layers of Antarctic deposits and from subsurface Arctic deposits exhibited more complete spectra of secondary metabolites compared to three strains isolated from permafrost 15 000 to 600 000 years old. This is the first report on andrastins formation by a P. restrictum. Wide occurrence of rugulovasins in P. variabile strains was shown.
Keywords:mycelial fungi Penicillium secondary metabolites chemotaxonomy Antarctica Arctic
The work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research, project no. 15-29-02629-ofi_m.
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