Characterization, identification, and screening for tetrodotoxin production by bacteria associated with the ribbon worm (Nemertea) Cephalotrix simula (Ivata, 1952)
- 139 Downloads
The taxonomic composition of bacteria associated with the proboscis worm Cephalothrix simula was studied and screening of the tetrodotoxin (TTX)-producing bacteria was carried out using confocal laser scanning microscopy and polyclonal antibodies. Bacterial isolates were identified using the 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic characteristics. A Bacillus species was found to be responsible for tetrodotoxin production in proboscis worm C. simula. Vibrio spp. dominated the associated microflora (68.18% of the total number of isolates). The analysis of sensitivity of 16 strains to antibiotics of various classes revealed multiple resistance to three or more antibiotics in all the studied isolates. Poor growth of most of the isolates on all the laboratory media was an indirect confirmation of the symbiotic relationships between the micro- and macroorganisms.
Keywordsmarine heterotrophic bacteria associations nemerteans tetrodotoxin production
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Chernyshev, A.V., Sravnitel’naya morfologiya, sistematika i filogeniya nemertin (Comparative Morphology, Systematics, and Phylogeny of Proboscis Worms), Vladivostok: Dal’nauka, 2011.Google Scholar
- 6.Kanoh, S., Distribution of tetrodotoxin in vertebrates, in Recent Advances in Tetrodotoxin Research, Hashimoto, K., Ed., Tokyo: Koseisha-Koseikaku, 1988, pp. 32–44.Google Scholar
- 7.Noguchi, T., Jeon, J.K., Arakawa, O., Sugita, H., Deguchi, Y., Shida, Y., and Hashimoto, K., Occurrence of tetrodotoxin and anhydrotetrodotoxin in Vibrio sp. isolated from the intestines of a xanthid crab, Atergatis floridus, J. Biochem., 1986, vol. 99, pp. 311–314.Google Scholar
- 11.Beleneva, I.A., Kukhlevsky, A.D., and Kharchenko, U.V., Antimicrobial activity of heterotrophic bacterial strains of marine origin, Jundishapur J. Microbiol., 2013, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 166–175.Google Scholar
- 12.Smibert, R.M. and Krieg, N.R., Phenotypic characterization, in Methods for General and Molecular Bacteriology, Gerhardt, P., Murray, R.G.E., Wood, W.A. and Krieg, N.R., Eds., Washington: D.C: American Soc. Microbiol., 1994, pp. 607–655.Google Scholar
- 13.Sambrook, J.F., Fristch, E.F., and Maniatis, T., Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 2nd ed., New York: Cold Sprong Harbor Lab. Press, 1989.Google Scholar
- 15.Venkateswaran, K., Moser, D.P., Dollhopf, M.E., Lies, D.P., Saffarini, D.A., MacGregor, B. J., Ringelberg, D. B., White, D. C., Nishijima, M., Sano, H., Burghardt, J., Stackebrandt, E., and Nealson, K.H., Polyphasic taxonomy of the genus Shewanella and description of Shewanella oneidensis sp. nov., Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol., 1999, vol. 49, pp. 705–724.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 16.Giovannoni, S. and Rappé, M., Evolution, diversity, and molecular ecology of marine prokaryotes, in Microbial Ecology of the Ocean, Kirchman, D.L., Ed., New York: Wiley-Liss, 2000, pp. 47–84.Google Scholar
- 21.Suzuki, S., Tetracycline resistance gene in Asian aquatic environments, in Interdisciplinary Studies on Environmental Chemistry-Biological Responses to Contaminants, Hamamura, N., Suzuki, S. Mendo, S. Barroso, C.M., Iwata, H., and Tanabe, S., Eds., Tokyo: TERRAPUB, 2010, pp. 1–8.Google Scholar