Advertisement

Lithology and Mineral Resources

, Volume 53, Issue 4, pp 270–282 | Cite as

Basal Moraines: Communication 1. Essential Lithological Features

  • O. G. Epshtein
Article

Abstract

The facies complex of basal moraines with glaciodynamic structures (common basal moraines) dominates among deposits of the given genetic type. These moraines represent glacial diamictons of diverse structure and lithology. Some of their features are also typical of sediments of other genetic types. Therefore, a comprehensive study of glacial diamictons and their occurrence mode on the glacial bed (unconsolidated or consolidated) within large outcrops is methodically correct. Only such studies can unravel the wide range of specific features typical of common basal moraines.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Amos, C.L. and Knoll, R.G., Quaternary sediments of Banquerau, Scotian Shelf, GSA Bull., 1987, vol. 99, pp. 244–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andreicheva, L.N., Pleistotsen evropeiskogo Severo-Vostoka (Pleistocene in the European Northeast), Yekaterinburg: UrO RAN, 2002.Google Scholar
  3. Astakhov, V.I., Nazarov, D.V., Semenova, L.R., et al., Problem of mapping the northern Pleistocene, Region.Geol. Metallog., 2015, no. 62, pp. 20–33.Google Scholar
  4. Banham, P.H., Glacitectonites in till stratigraphy, Boreas, 1977, vol. 6, pp. 101–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Binkenmayer, K. and Luczkowska, E., Mid-Holocene foraminiferal assemblages from marine shell-bearing moraines at Horsund, South Spitsbergen, Bull. Polish Acad. Sci. Earth Sci., 1996, vol. 44, pp. 227–233.Google Scholar
  6. Bjorlykke, K., Bue, B., and Elverhoi, A., Quaternary sediments in the northwestern part of the Barents Sea and their relation to the underlying Mesozoic bedrock, Sedimentology, 1978, vol. 25, pp. 227–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boulton, G.S., On the deposition of subglacial and meltout tills at the margin of certain Svalbard glaciers, J. Glaciol., 1970a, vol. 9, pp. 231–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Boulton, G. S., On the origin and transport of englacial debris in Svalbard glaciers, J. Glaciol., 1970b, vol. 9, pp. 213–230.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boulton, G. S, The development of geotechnical properties, in Glacial Tills, Legget, R.F., Ed., Ottawa, 1976, pp. 292–303.Google Scholar
  10. Boulton, G.S., Boulder shape and grain-size distribution of debris as indicators of transport paths through glacier and till genesis, Sedimentology, 1978, vol. 25, pp. 773–799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boulton, G.S., Processes of glacial erosion on different substrata, J. Glaciol., 1979, vol. 23, pp. 15–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carter, L., Surficial sediments of Barkley Sound and adjacent continental shelf, west coast Vancouver Island, Can. J. Earth Sci., 1973, vol. 10, pp. 441–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Claperton, C.M., Sugden, D.E., Kaufman, D.S., and McCulloch, R.D., The Last Glaciation in Central Magellan Strait, Southermost Chile, Quat. Res., 1995, vol. 44, pp. 133–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clark P.U. and Hansel A.K., Clast ploughing, lodgement and glacier sliding over a soft glacier bed, Boreas, 1989, vol. 18, pp. 201–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dellwig, L.F. and Balwin, A.D., Ice-push deformation in Northeastern Kansas, Kansas Geol. Surv. Bull., 1965, no. 175, pp. 3–16.Google Scholar
  16. Drake, L.D., Depositional fabrics in basal till reflect alignment during transportation, Ear. Surf. Process., 1977, vol. 2, pp. 309–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dreimanis, A., Are marine fossils in the Quaternary deposits a sufficient evidence for marine deposition?, Baltica, 1970, vol. 4, pp. 313–322.Google Scholar
  18. Dreimanis, A., Till: their origin and properties, in Glacial Till, Legget, R.E., Ed., Ottawa, 1976, pp. 11–49.Google Scholar
  19. Dreimanis, A., Till: Their genetic terminology and classification, in Genetic classification of glacigenic deposits, Goldthwait, R.P., Matsch, C.L., Eds., Rotterdam: A.A. Balkema, 1989, pp. 17–83.Google Scholar
  20. Dreimanis, A. and Schlüchter, C., Field criteria for recognition of till of tillite, Palaogeogr., Palaeoclim., Palaeoecol., 1985, vol. 51, pp. 7–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Drewry, D., Glacial Geological Processes, London: Edward Arnold, 1986.Google Scholar
  22. Edwards, M., Glacial environment of sedimentation, in Sedimentary Environments and Facies, Reading, H. G., Ed., Oxford: Blackwell Sci., 1986.Google Scholar
  23. Translated under the title Obstanovki osadkonakopleniya i fatsii, Moscow: Mir, 1989, vol. 1, pp. 195–276.Google Scholar
  24. Edwards, M.B., Glacial influence on Neoproterozoic sedimentation: Smalfjord Formation, northern Norway-discussion, Sedimentology, 2004, vol. 51, pp. 1409–1417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ehlers, J. and Stephan, H.-J., Forms at the base of till strata as indicators of ice movement, J. Glaciol, 1979, vol. 22, pp. 345–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Elson, J.A., Striated boulder pavements of Southern Manitoba, Canada, GSA Bull., 1957, vol. 68, pp. 17–22.Google Scholar
  27. Epshtein, O.G., Morphogenetic features of the coarse-clastic material in Pleistocene rubble clay loam in the northern European part of the Soviet Union, in Paleogeografiya i poleznye iskopaemye pleistotsena severa Evrazii (Paleogeography and Pleistocene Mineral Resources in northern Eurasia), Chochi, N.G., Ed., Leningrad: VGO, 1986, pp. 106–110.Google Scholar
  28. Epshtein, O.G., The Vast’yanskii Kon outcrop in Lower Pechora—A thick terminal-moraine edifice section in the active marginal zone of the Novaya Zemlya ice sheet, Byull. Komiss. Izuch. Chetvert. Perioda, 1990, no. 59, pp. 14–28.Google Scholar
  29. Epshtein, O.G., Modified five-index scale for visual assessment of the roundness of clastic material and its implication, Lithol. Miner. Resour., 1995, no. 6, pp. 590–602.Google Scholar
  30. Epshtein, O.G., Glaciotectonites–Basal zone of the Quaternary cover in the southeastern Barents Sea, in Fundamental’nye problemy kvartera: itogi izucheniya i osnovnye napravleniya dal’neishikh issledovanii (Fundamental Problems of the Quaternary: Results of the Study and Main Directions of Further Studies), Moscow: GEOS, 2007, pp. 477–480.Google Scholar
  31. Epshtein, O.G., Basal (basic) moraines: Problem of the identification and principles of new classification, Lithol. Miner. Resour., 2017, no. 2, pp. 125–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Epshtein, O.G. and Chistyakova, I.A., The Pechora Sea shelf in the late Valdaian–Holocene: Main sedimentologicalI and paleogeographic events, Byull. Komiss. Izuch. Chetvert. Perioda, 2005, no. 66, pp. 107–123.Google Scholar
  33. Epshtein, O.G. and Gataullin, V.N., Lithology and formation conditions of Quaternary sediments in the eastern (Novaya Zemlya) sector of the Barents Sea, Litol. Polezn. Iskop., 1993, no. 1, pp. 119–124.Google Scholar
  34. Epshtein, O.G., Starovoitov, A.V., and Dlugach, A.G., “Soft moarines " in the Arctic and Antarctic–New facies type of glacial deposits, Byull. Mosk. O-va Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Geol., 2010, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 23–44.Google Scholar
  35. Epshtein, O.G., Dlugach, A.G., Starovoitov, A.V., and Romanyuk, B.F., Pleistocene sediments of the eastern Barents Sea (Central Deep and Murmansk Bank areas): Communication 1. Occurrence conditions and main structural features, Lithol.Miner. Resour., 2011a, no. 2, pp. 115–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Epshtein, O.G., Dlugach, A.G., Starovoitov, A.V., and Romanyuk, B.F., Pleistotcene sediments of the eastern Barents Sea (Central Deep and Murmansk Bank areas): Communication 2. Lithological composition and occurrence conditions, Lithol. Miner. Resout., 2011b, no. 3, pp. 220–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Epshtein, O.G., Dlugach, A.G., and Starovoitov, A.V., Seismostratigraphy of the sedimentary cover as basis for forecasting engineering-geological conditions on the Barents Sea shelf, Inzhenern. Geol., 2014, no. 5, pp. 30–41.Google Scholar
  38. Eyles, N., Daniels, J., Osterman, L.E., and Januszczak, N., Ocean Drilling Program Leg 178 (Antarctic Peninsula): sedimentology of glacially influenced continental margin topsets and foresets, Mar. Geol., 2001, vol. 178, pp. 135–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Flint, R.F., Glacial and Quaternary Geology, New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1971.Google Scholar
  40. Gataullin, V., Polyak, L., Epstein, O., and Romanyuk, B., Glacigenic deposits of the Central Deep: a key to the Late Quaternary evolution of the eastern Barents Sea, Boreas, 1993, vol. 22, pp. 47–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Goldstein, M.N., Mekhanicheskie svoistva gruntov (Mechanical Properties of Soils), Moscow: Gos. Izd-vo Liter. Stroit. Arkhit., 1952.Google Scholar
  42. Goldthwait, R.P., Introduction to till, today, in Till, Goldthwait, R.P., Ed., Ohio State Univ., 1971, pp. 3–26.Google Scholar
  43. Gray, J.M., Unweathered, glaciated bedrock on an exposed lake bed in Wales, J. Glaciol., 1982, vol. 28, pp. 483–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Guslitser, B.I., Origin of rubble clayey loam in the northern Cis-Ural region, in Geologiya i paleontologiya Severo-Vostoka Evropeiskoi chasti SSSR (Geology and Paleontology in the northeastern European part of the Soviet Union), Syktyvkar, 1973, no. 16, pp. 3–19.Google Scholar
  45. Guslitser, B.I. and Loseva, E.I., Upper Cenozoic in the Pechora lowland, Komi Fil. AN SSSR, Ser. Preprint. “Nauchn. Dokl.”, 1979.Google Scholar
  46. Hald, M. and Vorren, O., Foraminiferal stratigraphy and environment of Late Weichselian deposits on the continental shelf off Troms, Northern Norway, Mar. Micropaleontol., 1987, vol. 12, pp. 129–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hambrey, M.J., Glacial Environment, London: UCL Press, 1994.Google Scholar
  48. Hansel, A.K., Clast ploughing, lodgement and glacier sliding over a soft glacier bed, Boreas, 1989, vol. 18, pp. 201–207.Google Scholar
  49. Harland, W.B., Herod, K.N., and Krinsley, D.H., The definition and identification of tills and tillites, Earth-Sci. Rev., 1966, vol. 2, pp. 225–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Harris, S.E., Friction crack and the direction of glacial movement, J. Geol., 1943, vol. 51, pp. 244–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Harrison, P.W., A clay-till fabric: its character and origin, J. Geol., 1957, vol. 65, pp. 275–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Hart, J.K. and Boulton, G.S., The interrelation of glaciotectonic and glaciodepositional processes within the glacial environment, Quat. Sci. Rev., 1991, vol. 10, pp. 335–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Heusser, C.J. and Flint, R.F., Quaternary glaciations and environments of northern Isla Chiloé, Chile, Geology, 1977, vol. 5, pp. 305–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hjort, C., Ingolfsson, O., Möller, P., and Lirio, J.M., Holocene glacial history and sea-level change on James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula, J. Quat. Sci., 1997, vol. 12, pp. 259–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Holmes, C.D., Till fabric, GSA Bull., 1941, vol. 52, pp. 1299–1354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Holmes, C.D., Evolution of till-stone shape, Central New York, GSA Bull., 1960, vol. 71, pp. 1645–1660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Holtedahl, U., Geologiya Norvegii (Geology of Norway), Moscow: IL, 1956, vol. 2.Google Scholar
  58. Hughes, T.J., Numerical reconstruction of paleo-ice sheets, in The Last Great Ice Sheets, Denton, G.H. and Hughes, T.J., Eds., N. Y.: John Wiley Sons, 1981, pp. 221–261.Google Scholar
  59. Hughes, T.J., Ice Sheets, N.Y.: Oxford Univ. Press, 1998.Google Scholar
  60. Ingólfsson, Ó, Hjort, C., Björck, S., and Smith, R.I.L., Late Pleistocene and Holocene glacial history of James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula, Boreas, 1992, vol. 21, pp. 209–222.Google Scholar
  61. Iverson, N.R., Morphology of glacial striae: implications for abrasion of glacier beds and fault surfaces, GSA Bull., 1991, vol. 103, pp. 1308–1316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kelly, M. and Bennike, O., Quaternary geology of western and central North Greenland, Grønland Geol. Unders. Rap., 1992, no. 153, pp. 1–34.Google Scholar
  63. King, L.H. and Fader, G.B.J., Wisconsinan glaciation of the Atlantic continental shelf of southeast Canada, Geol. Surv. Can. Bull., 1986, vol. 363.Google Scholar
  64. Konradi, P.B., Foraminiferas in some Danish glacial deposits, Bull. Geol. Inst. Univ. Uppsala: News Ser, 1973, vol. 5, pp. 173–175.Google Scholar
  65. Korsun, S.A. and Pogodina, I.A., Foraminifers near active glaciers (Barents Sea), in Geologiya chetvertichnykh otlozhenii i noveishaya tektonika lednikovykh oblastei Vostochnoi Evropy (tezisy dokladov) (Geology of Quaternary Deposits and Neotectonics in Glacial Zones of East Europe), Apatity, 1992, pp. 22–23.Google Scholar
  66. Krapivner, R.B., Origin of diamictons on the Barents Sea shelf, Lithol. Miner. Resour., 2009, no. 2, pp. 120–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Krüger, J., Structures and textures in till indicating subglacial deposition, Boreas, 1979, vol. 8, pp. 323–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Krüger, J. and Marcussen, I., Lodgement till and flow till: a discussion, Boreas, 1976, vol. 5, pp. 61–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Krumbein, W.C., Measurement and geological significance of shape and roundness of sedimentary particles, J. Sediment. Petrol., 1941, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 64–72.Google Scholar
  70. Lamerson, P.R. and Dellwig, L.F., Deformation by ice push of lithified sediments in south-central Iowa, J. Geol., 1965, vol. 65, pp. 546–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lavrushin, Yu.A., Stroenie i formirovanie osnovnykh moren materikovykh oledenenii (Structure and Formation of Main Moraines of Continental Glaciations), Moscow: Nauka, 1976.Google Scholar
  72. Lavrushin, Yu.A., Some general issues of the moraine sedimentogenesis, in Protsessy kontinental’nogo litogeneza (Processes of the Continental Lithogenesis), Moscow: Nauka, 1980, pp. 123–135.Google Scholar
  73. Lavrushin, Yu.A. and Epshtein, O.G., Features of the glacial lithogenesis, Byull. Mosk. O-va Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Geol., 2000, vol. 75, no. 6, pp. 14–29.Google Scholar
  74. Lavrushin, Yu.A. and Epshtein, O.G., Pleistocene geological events in the northern part of East Europe and the studied Barents Sea region (based on materials from natural reference sections), Byull. Komiss. Izuch. Chetvert. Perioda, 2001, no. 64, pp. 35–60.Google Scholar
  75. Lavrushin, Yu.A., Geptner, A.R., and Golubev, Yu.K., Ledovyi tip sedimento-i litogeneza (Glacial Type of Sedimentogenesis and Lithogenesis), Moscow: Nauka, 1986.Google Scholar
  76. Leonov, M.G. and Epshtein, O.G., Borodulinoe glaciodislocations (Russian Platform) and their significance for understanding structure-forming mechanisms, Geotectonics, 2002, no. 3, pp. 188–202.Google Scholar
  77. Levkov, E.A., Glyatsiotektonika (Glaciotectonics), Minsk: Nauka Tekhn., 1980.Google Scholar
  78. Lundqvist, J., Till in Sweden, Boreas, 1977, vol. 6, pp. 73–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Lundqvist, J., Glaciotectonics and till or tillite genesis: examples from Pleistocene glacial drift in Central Sweden, Palaeogeogr., Palaeoclimatol., Palaeoecol., 1985, vol. 51, pp. 389–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Lundqvist, J., Glacigenic processes, deposits and landforms, in Genetic Classification of Glacigenic Deposits, Goldthwait, R.P. and Matsh, C.L., Eds., Rotterdam: Balkema, 1989, pp. 3–16.Google Scholar
  81. Macfadyen, W.A., Foraminifera from some Late Pliocene and glacial deposits of East Anglia, Tectonics, 1932, vol. 69, pp. 481–497.Google Scholar
  82. MacLean B., Sonnichsen G., Vilks G., et al. Marine geological and geotechnical investigation in Wellington, Byam Martin, Austin, and adjacent channels, Canadian Arctic Archipelago, Geol. Surv. Can. Pap. 89–11. 1989.Google Scholar
  83. Makeev, V.V. and Bol’shiyanov, D.Yu., Features of glacial deposits in Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, in Kainozoi shel’fa i ostrovov Sovetskoi Arktiki (Cenozoic in the Shelf and Islands of the Soviet Arctic Region), Leningrad: PGO Sevmorgeol., 1986, pp. 127–132.Google Scholar
  84. Manley, W.F. and Miller, G.H., Glacial-geological record on southern Baffin Island reflecting late glacial ice-sheet dynamics in the eastern Hudson Strait region, in Marine Geology of Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay, Eastern Arctic Canada: Late Quaternary Sediments, Depositional Environtments, and Late Glacial-Deglacial History Derived from Marine and Terrestrial Studies, MacLean, B., Ed., Geol. Surv. Can. Bull., 2001, vol. 566, pp. 19–30.Google Scholar
  85. Mickelson, D.M., Acomb, L.J., and Edit, T.B., The origin of preconsolidated and normally consolidated tills, Moraines and Varves (Origin, Genesis, Classification), Schlucher, Ch., Ed., Rotterdam: Balkema, 1979, pp. 179–187.Google Scholar
  86. Moran, S.R., Glaciotectonic structures in drift, in Till, Goldthwait, R.P., Ed., Ohio: State Univ., 1971, pp. 127–148.Google Scholar
  87. Muller, E.H., Dewatering during lodgement till, in Till and related deposits, Evenson, E., Schlüchter, Ch., and Rabassa. J., Eds., Rotterdam: Balkema, 1983, pp. 13–18.Google Scholar
  88. Picard, J., The Holocene fossil marine macrofauna of the Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica, Boreas, 1985, vol. 14, pp. 189–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ramsden, J. and Westgate, J.A., Evidence for reorientation of a till fabric in the Edmonton area, Alberta, in Till, Goldthwait, R.P., Ed., Ohio: State Univ., 1971, pp. 335–344.Google Scholar
  90. Rise, L. and Rokoengen, K., Surficial sediments in the Norwegian sector of the North Sea between 60°30′ and 62° N, Mar. Geol., 1984, vol. 58, pp. 287–317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Rokoengen, K. and Dekko, T., Submerged and tilted coastal features off Troms, northern Norway, Norsk Geol. Tidsskrift, 1993, vol. 73, pp. 198–208.Google Scholar
  92. Rukhina, E.V., Litologiya lednikovykh otlozhenii (Lithology of Glacial Deposits), Leningrad: Nedra, 1973.Google Scholar
  93. Sættem J., Poole, D.A.R., Ellingsen, L., and Sejrup, H.P., Glacial geology of outer Bjørnøyrenna, southwestern Barents Sea, Mar. Geol., 1992, vol. 103, pp. 15–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Saunders, G.F., Glaciations of possible Scottish re-advance age in North West Wales, Nature, 1968, vol. 218, no. 5136, pp. 76–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Shantser, E.V., Essays on genetic types of continental sedimentary rocks, in Tr GIN, 1966, no. 161.Google Scholar
  96. Simonov, A.N., Formation of some specific features of the lithology of Middle and Upper Pleistocene bottom moraines in the northern Pechora lowland, in Protsessy kontinental’nogo litogeneza (Processes of the Continental Lithogenesis), Shantser, E.V., Ed., Moscow: Nauka, 1980, pp. 156–166.Google Scholar
  97. Skempton, A.W., The consolidation of clay by gravitational compaction, Quat. J. Geol. Soc., London, 1970, vol. 125, no. 499, part 3, pp. 373–411.Google Scholar
  98. Sugden, D.E., Reconstruction of the morphology, dynamics, and thermal characteristics of the Laurentide ice sheet at its maximum, Arc. Alp. Res., 1977, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 21–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Svantesson, Sven-I., Beskrivning till jordartskartan 7G västervik SO/7H loftahammar SV, Sverig. Geol. Undersok. Ser. A. Jordartskartor skala 1: 50000. no. 124, Uppsala, 1999.Google Scholar
  100. Tarasov, G.A., Pogodina, I.A., and Matishov, G.G., Late Quaternary history of western Spitsbergen, Dokl. Earth Sci., 2002, vol. 387A, no. 9, pp. 1113–1115.Google Scholar
  101. Tarnogradskii, V.D. and Kaplyanskaya, F.A., Classification of products of the glaciotectonic reworking of friable rocks in the glacial bed, in Kainozoiskii sedimentonenez i strukturnaya geomorfologiya SSSR (Cenozoic Sedimentogenesis and Structural Geomorphology of the Soviet Union), Chemekov, Yu.F., Ed., Leningrad: SEGEI, 1987, pp. 73–78.Google Scholar
  102. Troitskii, S.L., Modern antiglacialism: Critical essay, in Tr. IGIG SO AN SSSR, Saks, V.N., Ed., Moscow: Nauka, 1975.Google Scholar
  103. Virrkala, K., On the bed structure of till in eastern Finland, Suomi Geol. Tutkimuslaitos Bull., 1952, no. 157, pp. 97–109.Google Scholar
  104. Westgate, J.A., Linear sole marking in Pleistocene till, Geol. Mag., 1968, vol. 105, pp. 501–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wohlfarth, B., Björsk, S., Funder, S., et al., Quaternary of Norden, in Episodes. Spec. Iss., Gee, D.G. and Landenberger, A., Eds. 2008, vol. 31, pp. 73–81.Google Scholar
  106. Yakovlev, S.A., Marker boulders, moraines, and distribution boundaries of the Novaya Zemlya Glaciation on the Russian lowland, Byull. Komiss. Izuch. Chetvert. Perioda, 1939, no. 5, pp. 21–44.Google Scholar
  107. Yakovlev, S.A., The glacial group, in Metodicheskoe rukovodstvo po izucheniyu i geologicheskoi s"emke chetvertichnykh otlozhenii (Manual for the Study and Geological Mapping of Quaternary Deposits), Moscow: Gosgeoltekhizdat, 1954, ch. 1, pp. 121–170.Google Scholar
  108. Yakovleva, S.V., Study of glacial boulders, in Metodicheskoe rukovodstvo po izucheniyu i geologicheskoi s"emke chetvertichnykh otlozhenii (Manual for the Study and Geological Mapping of Quaternary Deposits), Moscow: Gosgeoltekhizdat, 1955, ch. 2, pp. 176–196.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geological InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations