Lithology and Mineral Resources

, Volume 49, Issue 5, pp 359–380 | Cite as

Origin and prospects of the Cimmerian iron ore basin in Ukraine and Russia

  • V. N. Kholodov
  • E. V. Golubovskaya
  • R. I. Nedumov
Article
  • 71 Downloads

Abstract

The article is dedicated to the geological structure and spatial position of the Cimmerian Kerch-Taman iron ore basin. Based on paleogeographic and recent geochemical data, it is shown that iron accumulated in the Cimmerian brackish lake originated mostly from weathered old rocks of the Ukrainian shield. The metal in question was delivered to the basin by its multistage migration and concentration owing to processes, which involved the eluvial zone of weathering crusts, krasnozem soils, rivers, bogs, and limans surrounding the lake. The formation mechanism of iron ore deposits is considered with the assessment of prospects for the discovery of new Cimmerian deposits in the spacious West Kuban depression and Crimea region and offshore areas of the Azov and Black seas.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Almazov, O.M., Maistrenko, Yu.G., and Dyatlovits’ka, N.G., Gidrokhimiya Dniprov’sko-Buz’skogo limanu (Hydrochemistry of the Dnieper-Bug Liman), Kiev: AN UkrSSR, 1959.Google Scholar
  2. Andrusov, N.I., The Pontian State: Neogene Pliocene, in Geologiya Rossii (Geology of Russia), St. Petersburg: Geolkom, 1917, vol. 4, issue 2, part 2.Google Scholar
  3. Andrusov, N.I., Pliotsen Yuzhnoi Rossii po sovremennym issledovaniyam (Pliocene of South Russia Based on Recent Studies), Leningrad: Geokom, 1929.Google Scholar
  4. Bass, Yu.B., Bauxites, in Geologiya SSSR (Geology of the Soviet Union), Moscow: Gosgeolizdat, 1963, vol. 5, part 3, pp. 122–152.Google Scholar
  5. Bass, Yu.B., Weathering profile of the crystalline basement, in Nikopol’skii margantserudnyi bassein (The Nikopol Manganese Ore Basin), Moscow: Nedra, 1964, pp. 15–28.Google Scholar
  6. Bass, Yu.B., Borisenko, S.T., Kondrachuk, V.Yu., and El’yanov, M.D., Ancient weathering profiles in Ukraine, in Kora vyvetrivaniya i svyazannye s nei poleznye iskopaemye (Weathering Profile and Associated Mineral Resources), Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1975, pp. 4–35.Google Scholar
  7. Birkis, A.P. and Kashik, L.I., Anorthosites in late evolution stages of the East European Platform, in Tr. Geol. Inst. AN SSSR, 1984, issue 75, pp. 148–188.Google Scholar
  8. Buchinskaya, N.I., Drevnyaya kora vyvetrivaniya severozapadnoi chasti Ukrainskogo shchita (Ancient Weathering Profile of the Northwestern Ukrainian Shield), Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1972.Google Scholar
  9. Chukhrov, F.V., Mineralogy of phytomorphoses and fossil bones, Tr. IGN AN SSSR. Miner.-Geol. Ser., 1940, no. 2.Google Scholar
  10. Dagelaiskii, V.B., The Ukrainian Shield, in Dokembriiskaya geologiya SSSR (Precambrian Geology of the Soviet Union), Leningrad: Nedra, 1988, part 1, section 2, pp. 114–142.Google Scholar
  11. Dodatko, A.D., Regularities in the alteration of physicochemical properties of rock properties during the weathering of ultrabasic rocks in the middle Dniester region, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geol., 1964, vol. 154, no. 2, pp. 68–71.Google Scholar
  12. Dodatko, A.D., Methods for determining the migration capability of elements in the weathering profile, in Kory vyvetrivaniya na territorii USSR (Weathering Profiles in Ukraine), Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1971, pp. 67–78.Google Scholar
  13. Dzens-Litovskii, A.I., Geological conditions of the Evpatoriya group of the Crimean salt lakes, Vodn. Bogatstva Nedr, 1934, no. 5, pp. 178–196.Google Scholar
  14. Dzens-Litovskii, A.I., Geology of the Lake Saki area, in Saki — kurort (Saki: A Resort), Kiev: Kurortizdat, 1935, pp. 31–94.Google Scholar
  15. Dzens-Litovskii, A.I., Geological age of bottom sediments of salt rocks in mineralized lakes, Priroda, 1936, no. 12, pp. 3–28.Google Scholar
  16. Dzens-Litovskii, A.I., The Tarkhankut Peninsula, in Ocherki po fiziogeografii Kryma (Essays on Physiogeography of the Crimea), Moscow: Nedra, 1938, pp. 5–68.Google Scholar
  17. Dzens-Litovskii, A.I., Geology of the bottom of mineralized lakes in the Soviet Union, Dokl. Akad. Nauk, 1945, no. 6, pp. 111–133.Google Scholar
  18. Egorov, E.N., General physicochemical features of basins in the Taman Peninsula, in Sovremennye analogi neftenosnykh fatsii (Recent Analogues of Petroliferous Facies), Moscow: GONTI, 1950, pp. 11–24.Google Scholar
  19. El’yanov, M.D. and Dodatko, A.D., Overview of study of the weathering profile of crystalline rocks in the Ukrainian Shield, in Kory vyvetrivaniya na territorii USSR (Weathering Profiles of Ukraine), Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1971, part 1, pp. 23–43.Google Scholar
  20. Fedorov, A.A., History of the high-altitude flora in the Caucasus in the Quaternary as example of the autochthonous development of the Tertiary flora basis, in Mat-ly po chetvertichnomu periodu SSSR (Materials Devoted to the Quaternary Period in the Soviet Union), Moscow: AN SSSR, 1952, issue 3, pp. 16–48.Google Scholar
  21. Fedorovich, B.A., About the variegated marlaceous sediments in the Crimea, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geol., 1928, no. 2, pp. 18–23.Google Scholar
  22. Geologiya shel’fa USSR. Limany (Geology of Shelf in the Soviet Union: Limans), Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1984, p. 176.Google Scholar
  23. Gordeev, V.V., Rechnoi stok v okean i cherty ego geokhimii (River Discharge into Ocean and Its Geochemistry), Moscow: Nauka, 1983.Google Scholar
  24. Gordeev, V.V., The river-sea system and its role in geochemistry of the ocean, Extended Abstract of DSc (Geol.-Miner.) Dissertation, 2009.Google Scholar
  25. Ivanov, A.I., Plankton algae as indicator of salinization and eutrophication of brackish waters, Tr. Sovetsko-angliiskogo seminara (Trans. Soviet-British Seminar), Leningrad, 1977, pp. 221–229.Google Scholar
  26. Kaurichev, I.S., Forms of iron in the perched water of soil in the turf-podzol zone, Dokl. TSKhA, 1957, no. 31, pp. 219–223.Google Scholar
  27. Khain, V.E., Regional’naya geotektonika. Vneal’piiskaya Evropa i Zapadnaya Aziya (Regional Geotectonics: Ex-Alpine Europe and West Asia), Moscow: Nedra, 1977.Google Scholar
  28. Kholodov, V.N., Vanadii (geokhimiya, mineralogiya i geneticheskie tipy v osadochnykh porodakh (Vanadium: Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Genetic Types in Sedimentary Rocks), Moscow: Nauka, 1968.Google Scholar
  29. Kholodov, V.N., Sedimentary ore genesis and vanadium metallogeny, in Tr. GIN AN SSSR, 1973, issue 251.Google Scholar
  30. Kholodov, V.N., Problems of the origin of epochs of phosphorite formation in the Earth’s history, Geol. Miner. Deposits, 2002, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 357–371.Google Scholar
  31. Kholodov, V.N., Geokhimiya osadochnogo protsessa (Geochemistry of Sedimentary Process), Moscow: GEOS, 2006.Google Scholar
  32. Kholodov, V.N. and Butuzova, G.Yu., Problems of siderite formation and iron ore epochs: Communication 1. Types of siderite content in iron ore deposits, Lithol. Miner. Resour., 2004, no. 5, pp. 445–468.Google Scholar
  33. Kholodov, V.N. and Butuzova, G.Yu., Problems of siderite formation and iron ore epochs: Communication 2. General issues of the Phanerozoic iron ore process, Lithol. Miner. Resour., 2004, no. 6, pp. 551–571.Google Scholar
  34. Kholodov, V.N., Nedumov, R.I, and Golubovskaya, E.V., Facies types of sedimentary iron ore deposits and their geochemical features: Communication 1. Facies groups of sedimentary ores, their lithology, and genesis, Lithol. Miner. Resour., 2012, no. 6, pp. 495–523.Google Scholar
  35. Kholodov, V.N., Nedumov, R.I, and Golubovskaya, E.V., Facies types of sedimentary iron ore deposits and their geochemical features: Communication 2. Problems of the geochemistry of Phanerozoic iron ores, Lithol. Miner. Resour., 2013, no. 1, pp. 15–51.Google Scholar
  36. Korotkov, A.I. and Khodina, V.A., Issue of the formation of chemical composition of ferruginous waters, in Zonal’nost’ podzemnykh vod platform i gorno-skladchatykh oblastei (Zonation of Groundwaters in Platforms and Orogenic Zones), Leningrad: Nedra, 1981, pp. 166–169.Google Scholar
  37. Kovalev, V.A., Bolotnye mineralogo-geokhimicheskie protsessy (Marshy Mineral-Geochemical Processes), Minsk: Nauka Tekhn., 1985.Google Scholar
  38. Kuznetsov, S.I., Mikroflora ozer i ee geokhimicheskaya deyatel’nost’ (Microflora of Lakes and Its Geochemical Activity), Leningrad: Nauka, 1970.Google Scholar
  39. Lisitsyna, N.A., Migration of chemical elements during the weathering of basic rocks, in Tr. GIN, 1973, issue 231.Google Scholar
  40. Litvinenko, A.U., Mineralogy of biomorphoses: Implication for the genesis of iron ores in the Azov basin, in Tr. L’vov Gos. Univ. Vopr. Mineral. Osadkoobraz., 1956, issue 34, pp. 174–190.Google Scholar
  41. Litvinenko, A.U., Geology and genesis of ores in the Azov iron ore basin, in Tr. soveshch. po Kerchenskoi metallurgii (Trans. Conf. on Kerch Metallurgy), Sevastopol: Krymizdat, 1958, pp. 24–38.Google Scholar
  42. Litvinenko, A.U. and Nemkova, V.K., Study of plant remnants in sediments of the Cimmerian Stage, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geol., 1956, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 82–86.Google Scholar
  43. Lychagin, G.A., Fossil mud volcanoes in the Kerch Peninsula, Byull. MOIP, Ser. Geol., 1952, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 3–13.Google Scholar
  44. Mchedlishvili, P.A., Age of the Goderz flora in connection with the finding of palm in Cimmerian rocks of western Georgia, Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geol., 1949, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 521–526.Google Scholar
  45. Mchedlishvili, P.A., Once again about the age of the Goderz flora, Byull. Mosk. O-va Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Geol., 1954, no. 1, pp. 15–25.Google Scholar
  46. Mel’nichuk, V.B., Weathering profile on serpentinites in the northeastern Urkrainian Shield, in Kory vyvetrivaniya na territorii USSR (Weathering Profiles in Ukraine), Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1971, pp. 213–222.Google Scholar
  47. Mikhailov, B.M., Issue of the role of plant cover during the lateritic weathering in mountain regions of the Liberian Shield, DAN SSSR. Ser. Geol., 1964, vol. 154, no. 4, pp. 426–432.Google Scholar
  48. Mikhailov, B.M., Weathering profile of the Liberian Shield, in Geokhimiya osadochnykh porod i rud (Geochemistry of Sedimentary Rocks and Ores), Moscow: Nauka, 1968, pp. 48–72.Google Scholar
  49. Mitropol’skii, A.Yu. and Moiseeva, N.P., Concentration of Microelements from sea water with chelate ionites, Problemy Gidrogeol. Inzh. Gruntoved., 1975, no. 4, pp. 171–175.Google Scholar
  50. Molyavko, G.I. and Pidoplichko, P.G., Paleogeography of Black Sea steppes in Ukraine in the Neogene and Anthropogene, Geol. Zh., 1955, no. 1, pp. 25–32.Google Scholar
  51. Moshkin, V.N. and Dagelaiskii, I.N., Gabbro-anorthosite complex of the Ukrainian crystalline massif, in Anortozity SSSR (Anorthosites of the Soviet Union), Moscow: Nauka, 1974, pp. 42–48.Google Scholar
  52. Muratov, M.V., History of the Black Sea basin: Implication for the evolution of ambient zones, Byull. Mosk. O-va Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Geol., 1951, vol. 26, pp. 7–34.Google Scholar
  53. Muratov, M.V., Paleogeography of the Cimmerian Age (Middle Pliocene) in the Black Sea-Caspian basin, Litol. Polezn. Iskop., 1964, no. 4, pp. 3–20.Google Scholar
  54. Nalivkin, D.V., Uchenie o fatsiyakh (Science of Facies), Moscow: AN SSSR, 1956, vol. 1/2.Google Scholar
  55. Patyk-Kara, N.G., Zubkov, L.B., and Bykhovskii, L.Z., Complex rare metal-titanium placer deposit, in Rossypnye mestorozhdeniya Rossii i stran SNG (Placer Deposits in Russia and CIS Countries), Moscow: Nauchn. Mir, 1997, pp. 308–352.Google Scholar
  56. Perel’man, A.I., Geokhimiya (Geochemistry), Moscow: Vyssh. Shkola, 1979.Google Scholar
  57. Pogrebnoi, V.T., Dodatko, A.D., Khorosheva, L.P., and El’yanov, M.D., Some data on the behavior of microelements in the weathering profile of crystalline rocks of the Dnieper and Azov regions, in Kory vyvetrivaniya na territorii USSR (Weathering Profile of Ukraine), Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1971, part 2, pp. 44–59.Google Scholar
  58. Polishchuk, V.S., Zambriborshch, F.S., Timchenko, V.M., et al., Limany Severnogo Prichernomor’ya (Limans in the Northern Black Sea Region), Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1990.Google Scholar
  59. Prokopov, K.A., Complications in anticlines of the Kerch Peninsula, Tr. GRU, 1931, issue 38, pp. 37–83.Google Scholar
  60. Rodionova, E. and Golovina, L., Presumable Messinian deposits in the Black Sea Basin. Sites 380A, 381DSDP and Zheleznyi Rog section of Taman Peninsula, Climate changes Rioevents and Geochronology in the Atlantic and Mediterranean over the last 23 Myr, Salamanca, 2011, pp. 201–202.Google Scholar
  61. Romm, I.I., Geochemical characteristics of recent sediments in the Taman Peninsula, in Sovremennye analogi neftenosnykh fatsii (Modern Analogues of Petroliferous Facies), Moscow: GONTI, 1950, pp. 181–204.Google Scholar
  62. Rudi, M.D. and Vaisfel’d, D.N., Peloids, in Geologiya shel’fa USSR. Tverdye poleznye iskopaemye (Geology of the Ukrainian Shelf: Solid Mineral Resources), Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1983, pp. 160–173.Google Scholar
  63. Savitskii, V.N., Osadchii, V.I., Romas, N.I., and Chebot’ko, K.A., Chemical composition and some properties of bottom sediments in the Dnieper-Bug liman estuary, Vodn. Resur., 1990, no. 2, pp. 121–129.Google Scholar
  64. Semenenko, N.P., Rodionov, S.P., Usenko, I.S., et al., Precambrian stratigraphy of the Ukrainian crystalline shield, in Stratigrafiya i korrelyatsiya dokembriya (Stratigraphy and Correlation of the Precambrian), Moscow: AN SSSR, 1960, pp. 36–66.Google Scholar
  65. Shalyt, E.S. and Ryabchun, V.K., Mineralogical-petrographic characteristics of bauxite rocks in the Smelyansk deposit, in Kory vyvetrivaniya na territorii USSR (Weathering Profiles in Ukraine), Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1971, part 2, pp. 89–102.Google Scholar
  66. Sharkov, V.V., The airborne instrumentation study of exposures of iron ore on the submarine slope of the Black Sea south of the Taman Peninsula, Tr. Lab. Aerometodov AN SSSR, 1960, no. 10, pp. 10–14.Google Scholar
  67. Shcherbak, N.P., Petrologiya i geokhronologiya dokembriya zapadnoi chasti Ukrainskogo shchita (Precambrian Petrology and Geochronology of the Western Ukrainian Shield), Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1975.Google Scholar
  68. Shil’krot, G.S., Estuaries of rivers in the liman as a buffer zone for the material flow to land in the Black Sea, Izv. Akad. Nauk, Ser. Geol., 1994, no. 2, pp. 100–111.Google Scholar
  69. Shnyukov, E.F., Genezis zheleznykh rud Azovo-Chernomorskoi provintsii (Genesis of Iron Ores in the Azov-Black Sea Province), Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1965.Google Scholar
  70. Shnyukov, E.F., Main results of studies, in Geologiya Azovskogo morya (Geology of the Azov Sea), Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1974, pp. 236–239.Google Scholar
  71. Shnyukov, E.F., Main types of deposits in the water area of the Black Sea: Neogene iron ores, in Geologiya shel’fa USSR. Tverdye poleznye iskopaemye (Geology of the Ukrainian Shelf: Solid Mineral Resources), Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1983, pp. 100–110.Google Scholar
  72. Shnyukov, E.F., Neogene sedimentary ores in water area of the Azov-Black Sea basin, in Mineral’nye bogatstva Chernogo morya (Mineral Wealth of the Black Sea), Kiev: NAN Ukrainy, 2004, pp. 179–184.Google Scholar
  73. Shnyukov, E.F. and Naumenko, P.I., Margantsevo-Zheleznye rudy Kerchenskogo basseina (Manganese-Iron Ores in the Kerch Basin), Simferopol: Krymizdat, 1961.Google Scholar
  74. Shnyukov, E.F. and Naumenko, P.I., Kimmeriiskie zheleznye rudy vdavlennykh sinklinalei Kerchenskogo poluostrova (Cimmerian Iron Ores in Indented Synclines of the Kerch Peninsula), Simferopol: Krymizdat, 1964, vol. 126.Google Scholar
  75. Shnyukov, E.F., Sobolevskii, Yu.V., Gnatenko, G.I., et al., Vulkany Kerchensko-Tamanskoi oblasti. Atlas, (Volcanoes of the Kerch-Taman Zone: Atlas), Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1986.Google Scholar
  76. Sholkovitz, E.R., Boyle, E.A., and Price, N.B., The removal of dissolved humic acids and iron during estuarine mixing, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 1978, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 130–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Shvartsev, S.L., Hydrogeological features of Guinea, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Razved., Geol. Razved., 1971, no. 8, pp. 10–21.Google Scholar
  78. Shvartsev, S.L., Laterites of Guinea and geochemical conditions of their formation, in Kory vyvetrivaniya (Weathering Profiles), Moscow: Nauka, 1976, issue 15, pp. 51–71.Google Scholar
  79. Sokolov, N.A., Neogene Sediments in the Lower Reaches of the Don River, Izv. Geolkoma, 1891, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 52–68.Google Scholar
  80. Starostin, V.I., Metallogeniya (Metallogeny), Moscow: MGU, 2012.Google Scholar
  81. Strakhov, N.M., Iron ore facies and their analogues in the Earth’s history: Experience of historical-geographical analysis of sedimentation, Tr. IGN AN SSSR. Geol. Ser., 1947, no. 22, p. 267.Google Scholar
  82. Strakhov, N.M., General scheme of sedimentation in recent seas and lakes with low mineralization, in Obrazovanie osadkov v sovremennykh vodoemakh (Formation of Sediments in Recent Basins), Moscow: AN SSSR, 1954, pp. 275–377.Google Scholar
  83. Strakhov, N.M., Osnovy teorii litogeneza (Principles of the Theory of Lithogenesis), Moscow: AN SSSR, 1962, vol. 1/2.Google Scholar
  84. Svitoch, A.A. and Kryst’ev, T.I., River estuaries and limans in Bulgaria in the Pleistocene, Vodn. Resur., 1995, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 528–534.Google Scholar
  85. Trashchuk, N.N., Mors’ki pleistotsenovi vidkladi Prichernomor’ya Ukrains’koi RSR (Marine Pleistocene Sediments in the Black Sea Region), Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1974.Google Scholar
  86. Tsymbal, S.N. and Polkanov, Yu.A., Mineralogiya titanotsirkonovykh rossypei Ukrainy (Mineralogy of Titanium-Zircon Placers in Ukraine), Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1975.Google Scholar
  87. Usenko, V.P. and Orlovskii, G.N., Physicogeographic characteristics, in Geologiya Azovskogo morya (Geology of the Azov Sea), Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 1974, pp. 12–20.Google Scholar
  88. Vereshchagin, N.K., Mlekopitayushchie Kavkaza (Mammals in the Caucasus), Moscow: AN SSSR, 1959.Google Scholar
  89. Vinogradov, A.P., Average contents of chemical elements in major types of igneous rocks of the Earth’s crust, Geokhimiya, 1962, no. 12, pp. 42–68.Google Scholar
  90. Yatsko, I.Ya., Experience of reconstruction of the Late Quaternary hydrographic network in the northwestern Black Sea, Tr. Inst. Okeanol., 1962, pp. 70–78.Google Scholar
  91. Yurk, Yu.Yu., Shnyukov, E.F., Lebedev, Yu.S., and Kirichenko, O.N., Mineralogiya zhelezorudnoi formatsii Kerchenskogo basseina (Mineralogy of the iron ore formation in the Kerch Basin), Simferopol: Krymizdat, 1960, vol. 447.Google Scholar
  92. Yurk, Yu.Yu., Lebedev, Yu.S., and Kirichenko, O.N., Ore potential of the Cimmerian Azov-Black Sea basin, Tr. Inst. Miner. Resursov, Simferopol, 1970.Google Scholar
  93. Zamorii, P.K., Black clays in basins of Ukraine, Tr. Geogr. Fakul’t. Kiev. Gos. Univ., 1953, no. 2, pp. 15–28.Google Scholar
  94. Zenkovich, V.P., Delta of the Danuve River, Izv. Vsesoyuzn. Geograf. Ob-va, 1943, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 21–30.Google Scholar
  95. Zitzman, A., The iron ore economic situation in Europe, The iron ore deposits of Europe and adjacent areas, Hannover, 1977, pp. 69–78.Google Scholar
  96. Zubkov, L.B. and Patyk-Kara, N.G., Monomineral titanium placer deposits, in Rossypnye mestorozhdeniya Rossii i stran SNG (Placer Deposits in Russia and CIS Countries), Moscow: Nauchn. Mir, 1997, pp. 234–269.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. N. Kholodov
    • 1
  • E. V. Golubovskaya
    • 1
  • R. I. Nedumov
    • 1
  1. 1.Geological InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations