, Volume 52, Issue 3, pp 382–400 | Cite as

Morpho-Structural Study of the Korek Anticline, Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt, Kurdistan of Iraq

  • A. A. OmarEmail author
  • A. T. Othman


The present study is an attempt to construct a morpho-structural model for the Korek anticline that is located within the High folded zone of the Zagros Fold and Thrust Belt in the Northern Iraq-Kurdistan region. A detail geological map constructed for this structure, the stratigraphic succession that is exposed in the area was deposited from the middle Jurassic up to upper Cretaceous, and consists of nine formations. The most important morphological landscape and landforms in the studied area are due to endogenic and exogenic processes. Accordingly, the area is divided into four main units, which are units of structural, denudational, fluvial and solution origins. Each unit characterized by its own morphological feature differs from one another. According to structural point of view the field data are analyzed from two point of the viewing, one from map view and secondly from cross sections. The geometrical properties from map view of the Korek Anticline indicated that this fold is an asymmetrical double plunging, open to gentle, non-cylindrically curviplanar fold. The Korek Anticline becomes sharper with the depth, but broader and more open upward, this is one of the most characteristic features of the parallel fold (Class 1B). The presence of numerous reverse faults and strike-slip faults which affect the architecture of the Korek Anticline indicates that this Anticline formed by a Fault-propagation fold mechanism. Detailed balanced and retro-deformable cross sections along this anticline indicate that the shortening percentage can be differentiated in space and times, while the depth to detachment gives values that iscoincident with the Ora Shale Formation of Paleozoic age. A morpho-structural model was constructed for this structure and it consists of two main stages and five substages were responsible for the formation of the Korek structure. The first main stage belongs to structural construction, which consists of three sub-stages, while the main second stage is belonging to morphological destruction, which consist also two sub-stages. The effect of these stages and sub-stages makes the anticline to take the nowadays architects shape.


mechanical stratigraphy geomorphology structural elements restored section construction destruction morpho-structural model 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    M. Alavi, “Regional stratigraphy of the Zagros foldthrust belt of Iran and it is proforeland evolution,” Am. J. Sci. 304, 1–20 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    N. K. Al-Azzawi, S. E. Al-Khatoni, and M. A. Alsumaidaie, “Detachment surface morphology and shortening distribution in the Foreland Folds of Iraq,” Iraqi Natl. J. Earth Sci. 14 (1), 39–58 (2014).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. H. S. Al-Hakari, PhD Thesis (Univ. Sulaimani, Sulaimani, Iraq, 2011).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. A. M. Aqrawi, J. C. Goff, A. D. Horbury, and F. N. Sadooni, The Petroleum Geology of Iraq (Scientific Press Ltd, Beaconsfield, U.K., 2010).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    A. Azor, E. A. Keller, and R. S. Yeats, “Geomorphic indicators of active fold growth: South Mountain–Oak Ridge anticline, Ventura basin, southern California,” Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 114, 745–753 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. Bahroudi and H. A. Koyi, “Effects of spatial distribution of Hormuz salt on deformation style in the Zagros fold and thrust belt: an analogue modeling approach,” J. Geol. Soc. (London, U. K.) 160, 719–733 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    H. G. Balaki, MS Thesis (Salahaddin Univ., Erbil, Iraq, 2004).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Berberian and G. C. P. King, “Towards a palaeogeography and tectonic evolution of Iran,” Can. J. Earth Sci. 18, 210–265 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. P. Billings, Structural Geology, 3rd ed. (Prentice–Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1972).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Cooper, “Structural style and hydrocarbon prospectively in fold and thrust belts: A global review,” in Deformation of the Continental Crust: The Legacy of Mike Coward, Vol. 272 of Geol. Soc. London, Spec. Publ., Ed. by A. C. Ries, R. W. H. Butler, and R. H. Graham (London, 2007), pp. 447–472.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    C. D. A. Dahlstrom, “Balanced cross sections,” Can. J. Earth Sci. 6, 743–757 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    D. Elliot, “The construction of balanced cross-sections,” J. Struct. Geol. 5, 99–101 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. J. Fleuty, “The description of folds,” Proc. Geol. Assoc. 73, 461–492 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. Homke, PhD Thesis (Univ. Barcelona, Barcelona, 2007).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. Huggett, Fundamentals of Geomorphology, 2nd ed. (Routledge, London, 2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    S. Z. Jassim and J. C. Goff, Geology of Iraq (Dolin, Prague and Moravian Museum, Brno, 2006).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    N. Kent, “Structure of the Kirkuk Embayment, northern Iraq: Foreland structures or Zagros Fold Belt structures,” GeoArabia 15 (4), 147–188 (2010).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    N. Z. Marouf, PhD Thesis (Univ. Baghdad, Baghdad, 1999).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    S. Marshak and M. S. Wilkerson, “Fold-thrust belt-an essay,” in Earth Structure, 2nd ed., Ed. by B. A. van der Pluijm and S. Marshak (W. W. Norton & Co, New York, 2004), pp. 444–474.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    S. Mitra, “Balanced structural interpretation in fold and thrust belts,” in Structural Geology of Fold and Thrust Belts, Ed. by S. Mitra and G. W. Fisher (John Hopkins Univ. Press, Baltimore, 1992), pp. 53–77.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. Mitra and J. Namson, “Equal-area balancing,” Am. J. Sci. 289, 563–599 (1989).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    C. A. O’Brien, “Salt diapirism in south Persia,” Geol. Mijnbouw 19, 357–376 (1957).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    C. A. O’Brien, “Tectonic problems of the oilfield belt of southwest Iran,” 18th International Geological Congress, Great Britain, 1950, Vol. 6, pp. 45–58.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    E. Saura, “Basin architecture and growth folding of the NW Zagros early foreland basin during the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary,” J. Geol. Soc. (London, U. K.) 168, 235–250 (2011).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    S. Sherkati and J. Letouzey, “Variation of structural style and basin evolution in the central Zagros (Izeh zone and Dezful Embayment), Iran,” Mar. Pet. Geol. 21, 535–554 (2004).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. Sherkati, M. Molinaro, D. F de Lamotte, and J. Letouzey, “Detachment folding in the central and eastern Zagros folded-belt (Iran): Salt mobility, multiple detachments and late basement control,” J. Struct. Geol. 27, 1680–1696 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    S. H. Syan, MS Thesis (Salahaddin Univ., Erbil, 2014).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Earth Structure: An Introduction to Structural Geology and Tectonics, Ed. by B. A. van der Pluijm and S. Marshak (McGraw–Hill, 1997), pp. 468–479.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    H. T. Verstappen and R. A. Van Zuidam, “Use of Aerial Photographs in Geomorphology. ITC system of geomorphological survey,” in ITC Textbook of Photo Interpretation (Int. Inst. Aerial Surv. Earth Sci., Enschede, Netherlands, 1975), Vol. VII, Ch.2.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    J. M. Verges, H. Goodarzi, H. Emami, R. Karpuz, J. Efstathiou, and P. Gillespie, “Multiple detachment folding in Pusht-e-Kuh Arc, Zagros: Role of mechanical stratigraphy,” in Thrust Fault-Related Folding, Vol. 94 of AAPG Mem., Ed. by K. McClay, J. H. Shaw, and J. Suppe (AAPG, 2011), pp. 69–94.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of GeologyUniversity of Salahaddin, College of ScienceErbilIraq

Personalised recommendations