Geotectonics

, Volume 45, Issue 1, pp 23–50

Tectonic evolution of Early Paleozoic island-arc systems and continental crust formation in the Caledonides of Kazakhstan and the North Tien Shan

Article

Abstract

The extended Saryarka and Shyngyz-North Tien Shan volcanic belts that underwent secondary deformation are traced in the Caledonides of Kazakhstan and the North Tien Shan. These belts are composed of igneous rocks pertaining to Early Paleozoic island-arc systems of various types and the conjugated basins with oceanic crust. The Saryarka volcanic belt has a complex fold-nappe structure formed in the middle Arenigian-middle Llanvirnian as a result of the tectonic juxtaposition of Early-Middle Cambrian and Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician complexes of ensimatic island arcs and basins with oceanic crust. The Shyngyz-North Tien Shan volcanic belt is characterized by a rather simple fold structure and consists of Middle-Late Ordovician volcanic and plutonic associations of ensialic island arcs developing on heterogeneous basement, which is composed of complexes belonging to the Saryarka belt and Precambrian sialic massifs. The structure and isotopic composition of the Paleozoic igneous complexes provide evidence for the heterogeneous structure of the continental crust in various segments of the Kazakh Caledonides. The upper crust of the Shyngyz segment consists of Early Paleozoic island-arc complexes and basins with oceanic crust related to the Saryarka and Shyngyz-North Tien Shan volcanic belts in combination with Middle and Late Paleozoic continental igneous rocks. The deep crustal units of this segment are dominated by mafic rocks of Early Paleozoic suprasubduction complexes. The upper continental crust of the Stepnyak segment is composed of Middle-Late Ordovician island-arc complexes of the Shyngyz-North Tien Shan volcanic belt and Early Ordovician rift-related volcanics. The middle crustal units are composed of Riphean, Paleoproterozoic, and probably Archean sialic rocks, whereas the lower crustal units are composed of Neoproterozoic mafic rocks.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    D. V. Alekseev, E. M. Kolesnikov, M. I. Smolyar, and S. Yu. Sokolov, “New data on the Age of Granitoids in the Lesser Karatau Range from the Results of K-Ar and Rb-Sr Dating,” Vestn. Mosk. Univ., Ser. 4, Geol., No. 1, 73–76 (1993).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    F. Kh. Apayarov, A. M. Mambetov, A. V. Mikolaichuk, and A. P. Bashkirov, “Lower Paleozoic of the Western Kyggyz Range, the North Tiean Shan, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Geodynamics of Continental Orogens and Geoenvironmental Problems (Nat. Acad. Sci., Bishkek, 2008), pp. 82–85 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. A. Akhmedzhanov, R. N. Abdullaev, and O. M. Borisov, Lower Paleozoic of the Middle and South Tien Shan (Fan, Tashkent, 1979) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    E. A. Babichev, V. I. Borisenok, E. M. Velikovskaya, et al., “Geology and Evolution History of the Stepnyak Synclinorium,” in Geology and Mineral Resources of Central Kazakhstan (Nauka, Moscow, 1977), pp. 220–241 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    V. I. Borisenok, “Stratigraphy of Early Geosynclinal Complexes of the Ishkeolmes Anticlinorium,” in Geology of Early Geosynclinal Complexes of Central Kazakhstan (Moscow State Univ., Moscow, 1985), pp. 132–164 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Geological Map of the Kazakh SSR on a Scale of 1: 500000. Central Kazakhstan Series, Explanatory Notes (Ministry Geol. USSR, Alma-Ata, 1981) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Geology and Metallogeny of the Chingiz-Tarbagatay Anticlinorium (Nauka, Alma-Ata, 1977) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Geology of North Kazakhstan (Stratigraphy) (Nauka, Alma-Ata, 1987) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Geology of the USSR, Vol. XL: Southern Kazakhstan, Book 1: Geological Description (Nedra, Moscow, 1971) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Geology of the USSR, Vol. XX: Central Kazakhstan, Book 1: Geological Description (Nedra, Moscow, 1972) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. V. Grishin, D. M. Pechersky, and K. E. Degtyarev, “Paleomagnetic Reconstruction of the Middle Paleozoic Structure of Central Kazakhstan,” Geotektonika 31(1), 73–84 (1997) [Geotectonics 31 (1), 65–75 (1997)].Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    K. E. Degtyarev, K. N. Shatagin, A. B. Kotov, et al., “Late Precambrian Volcanoplutonic Association of the Aktau-Dzhungar Massif, Central Kazakhstan: Structural Position and Age,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 421(4), 1–5 (2008) [Dokl. Earth Sci. 421 (6), 879–883 (2008)].Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    K. E. Degtyarev, Tectonic Evolution of the Early Paleozoic Active Margin in Kazakhstan (Nauka, Moscow, 1999) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    K. E. Degtyarev, “Position of the Aqtau-Dzungar Microcontinent in the Structural Framework of the Paleozoides of Central Kazakhstan,” Geotektonika 37(4), 14–34 (2003) [Geotectonics 37 (4), 271–288 (2003)].Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. E. Degtyarev and N. B. Kuznetsov, “New Data on Lower Paleozoic Paleooceanic Rocks in the Northern Fringing Structure of the Karaganda Coal Basin,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 346(4), 505–510 (1996) [Dokl. Earth Sci. 346 (1), 66–71 (1996)].Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. E. Degtyarev and A. V. Ryazantsev, “Cambrian Arc-Continent Collision and Geodynamics of the Paleozoides of Kazakhstan,” in Tectonics of Central Asia (GEOS, Moscow, 2005), pp. 61–126 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    K. E. Degtyarev and A. V. Ryazantsev, “Cambrian Arc-Continent Collision in the Paleozoides of Kazakhstan,” Geotektonika, 41(1), 71–96 (2007) [Geotectonics 41 (1), 63–86 (2007)].Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    K. E. Degtyarev and T. Yu. Tolmacheva, “Oblique Strike-Slip Faults and Their Role in Violation of Lateral Series of Structural Elements in the Early Paleozoic Chingiz Island-Arc System, Eastern Kazakhstan,” in Essays on Regional Tectonics, Vol. 2: Kazakhstan, Tien Shan, and the Polar Urals (Nauka, Moscow, 2005), pp. 40–67 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    K. E. Degtyarev, S. V. Dubinina, and A. R. Orlova, “Stratigraphy and Structural Peculiarities of the Lower Paleozoic Carbonate-Siliceous-Tuffaceous Complex of the Chingiz Range (Eastern Kazakhstan),” Stratigr. Geol. Korrelyatsiya 7(5), 93–99 (1999) [Stratigr. Geol. Correlation 7 (5), 501–507 (1999)].Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    K. E. Degtyarev, M. V. Luchitskaya, A. B. Kotov, et al., “Fragments of Cambrian Oceanic Plateaus in the Structure of Accretionary Complexes of the Fore-Chingiz, Eastern Kazakhstan,” in General and Regional Problems of Tectonics and Geodynamics (GEOS, Moscow, 2008), Vol. 1, pp. 252–257 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    K. E. Degtyarev, A. V. Ryazantsev, A. B. Kotov, et al., “Early Cambrian Ophiolites of the Boshchekul Zone (Central Kazakhstan): Structure of Sections and Age Substantiation,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 431(4), 503–508 (2010) [Dokl. Earth Sci. 431 (2), 413–417, (2010)].Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    K. E. Degtyarev, K. N. Shatagin, A. B. Kotov, et al., “Early Ordovician Volcanic Complex of the Stepnyak Zone (Northern Kazakhstan): Age Substantiation and Geodynamic Setting,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 419(2), 224–228 (2008) [Dokl. Earth Sci. 419 (2), 248–252 (2008)].Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    K. E. Degtyarev, K. N. Shatagin, A. B. Kotov, et al., “Composition of Deep Crustal Units of the Chingiz Range, Eastern Kazakhstan: Results of Isotopic Geochemical Study of Paleozoic Granitoids and Volcanic Rocks,” in Proceedings of Conference on Geodynamic Evolution of the Lithosphere of the Central Asian Foldbelt (from Ocean to Continent) (Inst. Earth’s Crust, Irkutsk, 2008), Issue 6, Vol. 1, pp. 102–103 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    K. E. Degtyarev, A. A. Tret’yakov, A. B. Kotov, and K. N. Shatagin, “Formation of the Continental Crust of the Stepnyak Segment of the Caledonides of Kazakhstan,” in Proceedings of Conference on Geodynamic Evolution of the Lithosphere of the Central Asian Foldbelt (from Ocean to Continent) (Inst. Earth’s Crust, Irkutsk, 2009), Issue 7, Vol. 1, pp. 87–89 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    K. E. Degtyarev, Doctoral Dissertation in Geology and Mineralogy (Moscow, 2010).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    S. V. Dubinina, A. R. Orlova, and L. A. Kurkovskaya, “Joint Finds of Conodonts and Graptoliths in the Lower Ordovician Cherty-Terrigenous Sequences of Northern Betpaqdala, Kazakhstan,” Byull. Mosk. O-va Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Geol. 71(5), 44–50 (1996).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    T. M. Zhautikov, N. V. Polyansky, and N. I. Lebed’, “Stratigraphy of the Upper Ordovician and Lower Silurian Rocks in the Akbastau-Kosmurun Ore Field,” in Geology and Metallogeny of Eastern Kazakhstan (KazIMS, Alma-Ata, 1971), pp. 58–69 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    V. S. Zvontsov, “The Aleksandrovskoe Base-Metal Deposit in the Northeast of Central Kazakhstan: Geology, Mineralization, and Genesis,” Izv. Akad. Nauk Kaz. SSR, Ser. Geol., No. 2, 21–35 (1990).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    M. B. Zima and R. A. Maksumova, “Ordovician in the Kara-Dzhorgo Range, the North Tien Shan,” Izv. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Ser. Geol., No. 2, 74–81 (1990).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    N. K. Ivshin, L. V. Bulygo, N. M. Gridina, et al., “Stratigraphy and Faunal Substantiation of Age of the Lower Cambrian Sedimentary-Volcanic Sequences in the Northeast of Central Kazakhstan,” in Geology and Metallogeny of Central Kazakhstan (Nauka, Moscow, 1993), pp. 33–38 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    M. L. Kopp, Structures of Lateral Extrusion in the Alpine-Himalayan Collision Belt (Nauchnyi Mir, Moscow, 1997) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    R. A. Kopyatkevich and D. T. Tsai, “Age of Volcanic-Jasper Sequence in the Stepnyak Synclinorium,” in Collection of Scientific Publications of the Institute of Geological Sciences in 1973 (IGN AN Kaz SSR, Alma-Ata, 1974), pp. 194–196 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    V. V. Korobkin and A. V. Smirnov, “Paleozoic Tectonics and Geodynamics of Volcanic Arcs in North Kazakhstan,” Geol. Geofiz. 47(4), 462–474 (2006).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    I. E. Kuznetsov, A. S. Yakubchuk, and M. Z. Novikova, “Ofiolity raiona Tolpak (severo-vostok Tsentral’nogo Kazakhstana),” Byull. Mosk. O-va Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Geol. 65 (1990).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    F. A. Letnikov, A. B. Kotov, K. E. Degtyarev, et al., ““Late Ordovician Granitoids of Northern Kazakhstan: U-Pb Age and Tectonic Setting,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 424(2), 222–226 (2009) [Dokl. Earth Sci. 424 (1), 24–28 (2009)].Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    F. A. Letnikov, A. B. Kotov, K. E. Degtyarev, et al., “Silurian Granites of Northern Kazakhstan: U-Pb Age and Tectonic Position,” Stratigr. Geol. Korrelyatsiya 17(3), 46–54 (2009) [Stratigr. Geol. Correlation 17 (3), 275–282 (2009)].Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    F. A. Letnikov, A. B. Kotov, E. B. Sal’nikova, et al., Granodiorites of the Grenville Phase in the Kokchetav Block, Northern Kazakhstan, Dokl. Akad. Nauk 417(4), 221–224 (2007) [Dokl. Earth Sci. 417 (8), 1195–1197 (2007)].Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Magmatism of Northern Kazakhstan (Nauka, Alma-Ata, 1988) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Igneous Complexes of Kazakhstan: The Kokchetau-North Tien Shan Fold System (Nauka, Alma-Ata, 1982) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    A. M. Mambetov, “Stratigraphy of the Sandalash Formation of the Middle Tien Shan,” in New Data on Biostratigraphy of Precambrian and Paleozoic of Kyrgyzstan (Ilim, Bishkek, 1993), pp. 41–55 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    A. M. Mambetov and Ch. I. Imanaliev, “Paleontological Characteristic of the Cambrian Aksu Formationat the Headwater of the Chatkal River,” Izv. Akad. Nauk Kirgiz SSR, No. 6, 10–15 (1981).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    A. V. Mikolaichuk, S. A. Kurenkov, K. E. Degtyarev, and V. I. Rubtsov, “Northern Tien Shan: Main Stages of Geodynamic Evolution in the Late Precambrian-Early Paleozoic,” Geotektonika 31(6), 16–34 (1997) [Geotectonics 31 (6), 445–462 (1997)].Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    O. V. Minervin, E. A. Babichev, and R. G. Tenyakova, “An Overview of Ordovician Stratigraphy in the north-western Central Kazakhstan,” in Pre-Paleozoic and Paleozoic of Kazakhstan, Vol. 1: Stratigraphy of Pre-Paleozoic, Cambrian, Ordovician, and Silurian (Nauka, Alma-Ata, 1974), pp. 191–206 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    A. A. Mossakovsky, S. V. Ruzhentsev, S. G. Samygin, and T. N. Kheraskova, “Central Asian Foldbelt: Geodynamic Evolution and Formation History,” Geotektonika 27(6), 3–32 (1993).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    I. F. Nikitin, Ordovician of Kazakhstan, Part 1: Stratigraphy (Nauka, Alma-Ata, 1972) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    I. F. Nikitin, “Ordovician Chert and Chert-Basalt Complexes of Kazakhstan,” Geol. Geofiz. 43(6), 512–527 (2002).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    I. F. Nikitin, N. M. Gridina, A. M. Zhilkaidarov, and V. G. Stepanets, “Age of the Kuvsk Formation and Localization of Ordovician Rocks in Western Fore-Chingiz,” Kaz. Geol., No. 2, 32–41 (1995).Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    O. I. Nikitina, T. Yu. Tolmacheva, and A. V. Ryazantsev, “Stratigraphy, Localization, and Main Types of Ordovician Paleobasins in the North Betpaqdala, Central Kazakhstan,” Izv. Nat. Acad. Sci. Republic of Kazakhstan, Ser. Geol., No. 6, 8–23 (2008).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    M. Z. Novikova, N. A. Gerasimova, L. A. Kurkovskaya, et al., “Stratigraphy of Lower Paleozoic Volcanic-Cherty Sequences of the Maikain-Kyzyltas Ophiolite Belt, Central Kazakhstan,” Byull. Mosk. O-va Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Geol. 68(6), 47–63 (1993).Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Early Precambrian of the Central Asian Foldbelt (Nauka, St. Petersburg, 1993) [inRussian].Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    O. M. Rosen and V. S. Fedorovsky, Collisional Granitoids and Delamination of the Earth’s Crust: Examples of Cenozoic, Paleozoic, and Proterozoic Collisional Systems (Nauchnyi Mir, Moscow, 2001) [inRussian].Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    A. V. Ryazantsev, “Structures of the Middle Paleozoic Active Margin in Kazakhstan: Their Lateral Zoning and Migration,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 369(5), 659–663 (1999) [Dokl. Earth Sci. 369A (9), 1259–1263 (1999)].Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    A. V. Ryazantsev, “Structural Grain of the Middle and Late Paleozoic of the Ural-Mongolian Belt: A Problem of Late Deformations,” in Geology of Kazakhstan and Problems of the Ural-Mongolian Foldbelt (Moscow State. Univ., Moscow, 2001), pp. 51–64 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    A. V. Ryazantsev, “Structural Zoning of the Lower Paleozoic Complexes in the Boshchekul Island-Arc System in the Northeast of Central Kazakhstan,” in Essays on Regional Tectonics, Vol. 2: Kazakhstan, Tien Shan, and the Polar Urals (Nauka, Moscow, 2005), pp. 5–39 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    A. V. Ryazantsev, K. E. Degtyarev, A. B. Kotov, et al., “Ophiolite Sections of the Dzhalair-Nayman Zone, South Kazakhstan: Their Structure and Age Substantiation,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 427(3), 359–364 (2009) [Dokl. Earth Sci. 427A (6), 902–906 (2009)].Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    A. V. Ryazantsev, K. E. Degtyarev, A. A. Tret’yakov, et al., “Age of the Oldest Ophiolites of Kazakhstan,” in Proceedings of IV Russian Conference on Isotopic Geochronology: Isotopic Systems and Timing of Geological Processes (Inst. Precambrian Geol. Geochronol., St. Petersburg, 2009), Vol. 2, pp. 145–147 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    A. V. Ryazantsev, T. Yu. Tolmacheva, and O. I. Nikitina, “Ophiolites, Island-Arc and Intracontinental Rift Complexes in the System of Tectonic Nappes in the Shu-Ili District of Kazakhstan,” in Proceedings of Conference on Geodynamic Evolution of the Lithosphere of the Central Asian Foldbelt (from Ocean to Continent) (Inst. Earth’s Crust, Irkutsk, 2006), Issue 4, Vol. 2, pp. 104–108 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    A. V. Ryazantsev, A. A. Tret’yakov, A. Kröner, and D. V. Alekseev, “Early Paleozoic Garnet Ultramafic Rocks in the Anrakhay Suture of the Shu-Ili Mountains,” in Proceedings of Conference on Geodynamic Evolution of the Lithosphere of the Central Asian Foldbelt (from Ocean to Continent) (Inst. Earth’s Crust, Irkutsk, 2009), Issue 7, Vol. 2, pp. 62–63 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    S. G. Samygin, “Complexes and Structures of Transitional Stage,” in Tectonics of Kazakhstan: Explanatory Notes to the Tectonic Map of Eastern Kazakhstan on a Scale of 1: 2500000 (Nauka, Moscow, 1982), pp. 50–82 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    S. G. Samygin, “Central and Eastern Kazakhstan,” in Tectonic Delamination of the Lithosphere and Regional Geological Studies (Nauka, Moscow, 1990), pp. 180–188 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    N. N. Sigacheva, Geology of Metamorphic Complexes of the Spassk Anticlinorium of Central Kazakhstan Variscides (Moscow State Univ., Moscow, 1979) [inRussian].Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    E. M. Spiridonov, “Caledonian Igneous Complexes and Some Aspects of Crustal Evolution and Metallogeny of Northern Kazakhstan,” in Magmatism and Ore Potential of Kazakhstan (Gylym, Alma-Ata, 1991), pp. 114–122 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    E. M. Spiridonov, “Middle and Upper Riphean Quartzites of Northern Kazakhstan,” Byull. Mosk. O-va Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Geol. 62(2), 71–77 (1987).Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    E. M. Spiridonov, S. P. Sigachev, N. K. Ivshin, et al., “Specificity of the Tremadocian Island-Arc Complex in Northern Kazakhstan,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 301(2), 415–420 (1988).Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    V. G. Stepanets, Candidate’s Dissertation in Geology and Mineralogy (Alma-Ata, 1992).Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    V. G. Stepanets, N. M. Gridina, and V. E. Konik, “Upper Ordovician Olistostromes and Stratigraphy of volcanic and Cherty Complexes of Agyrek and Qosgombay Mountains Central Kazakhstan,” Kaz. Geol., No. 1, 12–23 (1998).Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    M. M. Stetsyura, Cambrian Volcanism of the Shyngyz-Tarbagatay Fold System (Inst. Geol. Sci.,, Almaty, 2007) [inRussian].Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Stratified and Intrusive Rocks of Kirgizia (Ilim, Frunze, 1982), Vol. 1 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Stratified and Intrusive Rocks of Kirgizia (Ilim, Frunze, 1982), Vol. 2 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    A. V. Tevelev, V. M. Besstrashnov, N. A. Gerasimova, et al., “Stratigraphy of Middle Paleozoic in the Zhaman-Sarysu Megablock, Central Kazakhstan,” Byull. Mosk. O-va Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Geol. 78(2), 25–39 (2003).Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Tectonics and Deep Structure of Northern Kazakhstan (Nauka, Alma-Ata, 1988) [inRussian].Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    A. A. Tret’yakov, A. B. Kotov, F. A. Letnikov, et al., “Grenville Igneous Complexes of the Kokshetau Massif, Northern Kazakhstan,” in Proceedings of Conference on Geodynamic Evolution of the Lithosphere of the Central Asian Foldbelt (from Ocean to Continent) (Inst. Earth’s Crust, Irkutsk, 2009), Issue 7, Vol. 2, pp. 114–115 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    O. M. Turkina, F. A. Letnikov, and A. V. Levin, “Mesoproterozoic Granitoids in the Basement of the Kokshetau Microcontinent,” in Proceedings of Conference on Geodynamic Evolution of the Lithosphere of the Central Asian Foldbelt (from Ocean to Continent) (Inst. Earth’s Crust, Irkutsk, 2009), Issue 7, Vol. 2, pp. 116–117 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    L. I. Filatova, Stratigraphy and Histotical Geological Analysis of Precambrian Metamorphic Sequences of Central Kazakhstan (Nedra, Moscow, 1983) [inRussian].Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    I. Z. Filippovich and E. M. Velikovskaya, “Devonian Orogenic Magmatismof the Stepnyak Synclinorium, Northern Kazakhstan,” Sov. Geol., No. 6, 144–148 (1973).Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    B. F. Khromykh, “New Data of the Vendian-Early Paleozoic Evolution and Metallogeny of the Boshchekul Ore District,” Izv. Akad. Nauk Kaz. SSR, Ser. Geol., No. 6, 20–34 (1986).Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    A. F. Chitalin, “Ordovician Stratigraphy of the Spassk Anticlinorium,” Byull. Mosk. O-va Ispyt. Prir., Otd. Geol. 64(2), 55–63 (1989).Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Chu-Ili Ore Belt: Geology of the Chu-Ili Region (Nauka, Alma-Ata, 1980) [inRussian].Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    K. N. Shatagin, K. E. Degtyarev, V. N. Golubev, et al., “Vertical and Lateral Heterogeneity of the Crust beneath Northern Kazakhstan from Geochronological and Isotopic-Geochemical Data on Paleozoic Granitoids,” Geotektonika 35(5), 26–44 (2001) [Geotectonics 35 (5), 356–372 (2001)].Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    A. S. Yakubchuk, Tectonic position and Mineral Resources of Ophiolites, a Case of Central Kazakhstan (Moscow, 1991) [inRussian].Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    A. S. Yakubchuk, V. G. Stepanets, M. Z. Novikova, et al., “Revealing of an Axial Paleospreading Zone in Ordovician Ophiolites of Central Kazakhstan,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 307(5), 1198–1202 (1989).Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    A. S. Yakubchuk, V. G. Stepanets, and L. L. German, “Swarms of Sheeted Dikes Nearly Parallel to Layering in Ophiolite Massifs as Evidence for Spreading,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 298(5), 1193–1197 (1988).Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    N. Ya. Yashchenko and E. S. Faizulin, “Ordovician Volcanic Rocks at the Aleksandrovsky Base-Metal Massive Sulfide Deposits,” Izv. Akad. Nauk Kaz. SSR, Ser. Geol., No. 5, 31–41 (1976).Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    A. Abrajevich, R. Van der Voo, N. M. Levashova, and M. L. Bazhenov, “Palaeomagnetism of the Mid-Devonian Kurgasholak Formation, Southern Kazakhstan: Constraint on the Devonian Paleogeography and Oroclinal Bending of the Kazakhstan Volcanic Arc,” Tectonophysics 441, 67–84 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    A. Abrajevich, R. Van der Voo, N. M. Levashova, et al., “The Role of the Kazakhstan Orocline in the Late Paleozoic Amalgamation of Eurasia,” Tectonophysics 455, 61–76 (2008).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    A. F. Chitalin, “Variscian Structural Evolution of Central Kazakhstan,” in Granite-Related Ore Deposits of Central Kazakhstan and Adjacent Areas (Glagol Publ. House, St. Petersburg, 1996) pp 93–102.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    A. Hochstaendler, J. B. Gill, B. Taylor, et al., “Across-Arc Geochemical Trends in the Izu-Bonin Arc: Constraints on Source Composition and Mantle Melting,” J. Geophys. Res. 105, 495–512 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    A. Kröner, E. Hegner, B. Lehmann, et al., “Palaeozoic Arc Magmatizm in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt of Kazakhstan: SHRIMP Zircon and Whole-Rock Nd Isotopic Systematic,” J. of Asian Earth Sciences, No. 32, 118–130 (2008).Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    A. Kröner, B. F. Windley, G. Badarch, et al., “Accretionary Growth and Crust Formation in the Central Asia Orogenic Belt and Comparison with the Arabian-Nubian Shield,” Geol. Soc. Amer. Mem. 200, 1–29 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    N. M. Levashova, K. E. Degtyarev, M. L. Bazhenov, et al., “Middle Paleozoic Paleomagnetism of East Kazakhstan: Post-Middle Devonian Rotations in a Large-Scale Orocline in Central Ural-Mongolian Belt,” Tectonophysics 377, 249–268 (2003).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    B. Taylor, “Rifting and Volcanic-Tectonic Evolution of the Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc,” Proc. ODP Sci. Results 126, 627–652 (1992).Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    A. Togondaeva, A. Takasu, A. A. Bakirov, et al., “CHIME Monazite Ages of Garnet-Chloritoid-Talc Schists in the Makbal Complex, Northern Tien Shan: First Report of the UHP Metamorphism,” J. Miner. Petrol. Sci. 104, 77–81 (2009).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geological InstituteRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations