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Geotectonics

, Volume 44, Issue 6, pp 541–558 | Cite as

Impact of surface processes on the growth of orogenic wedges: Insights from analog models and case studies

  • J. MalavieilleEmail author
  • E. Konstantinovskaya
Article

Abstract

Interaction between surface processes and deep tectonic processes plays a key role in the structural evolution, kinematics and exhumation of rocks in orogenic wedges. The deformation patterns observed in analogue models applied to natural cases of present active or ancient mountain belts reflect several first order processes that result of these interactions. Internal strain partitioning due to mechanical behaviour of a thrust wedge has a strong impact on the vertical component of displacement of tectonic units that in return favour erosion in domains of important uplift. Such strain partitioning is first controlled by tectonic processes, but surface processes exert a strong feed back on wedge dynamics. Indeed, material transfer in thrust wedges not only depends on its internal dynamics, it is also influenced by climate controlled surface processes involving erosion and sedimentation. Effects of erosion are multiple: they allow long term localization of deformed domains, they favour important exhumation above areas of deep underplating and combined with sedimentation in the foreland they contribute to maintain the wedge in a critical state for long time periods. The simple models illustrate well how mountain belts structure, kinematics of tectonic units and exhumation are determined by these complex interactions.

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© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Lab. Géosciences MontpellierCNRS UMR 5243Montpellier cedex 5France
  2. 2.International Laboratory, (LIA) “ADEPT”CNRS-NSCMontpellier cedex 5France
  3. 3.Institut National de la Recherche ScientifiqueCentre Eau, Terre et Environnement (INRS-ETE)Quebec CityCanada

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