Geomagnetism and Aeronomy

, Volume 55, Issue 5, pp 609–622 | Cite as

Global model SMF2 of the F2-layer maximum height

  • V. N. Shubin
  • A. T. Karpachev
  • V. A. Telegin
  • K. G. Tsybulya


A global model SMF2 (Satellite Model of F2 layer) of the F2-layer height was created. For its creation, data from the topside sounding on board the Interkosmos-19 satellite, as well as the data of radio occultation measurements in the CHAMP, GRACE, and COSMIC experiments, were used. Data from a network of ground-based sounding stations were also additionally used. The model covers all solar activity levels, months, hours of local and universal time, longitudes, and latitudes. The model is a median one within the range of magnetic activity values K p< 3+. The spatial–temporal distribution of hmF2 in the new model is described by mutually orthogonal functions for which the attached Legendre polynomials are used. The temporal distribution is described by an expansion into a Fourier series in UT. The input parameters of the model are geographic coordinates, month, and time (UT or LT). The new model agrees well with the international model of the ionosphere IRI in places where there are many ground-based stations, and it more precisely describes the F2-layer height in places where they are absent: over the oceans and at the equator. Under low solar activity, the standard deviation in the SMF2 model does not exceed 14 km for all hours of the day, as compared to 26.6 km in the IRI-2012 model. The mean relative deviation is by approximately a factor of 4 less than that in the IRI model. Under high solar activity, the maximum standard deviations in the SMF2 model reach 25 km; however, in the IRI they are higher by a factor of ~2. The mean relative deviation is by a factor of ~2 less than in the IRI model. Thus, a hmF2 model that is more precise than IRI-2012 was created.


Solar Activity Radio Occultation High Solar Activity Solar Activity Level Equatorial Ionosphere 
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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. N. Shubin
    • 1
  • A. T. Karpachev
    • 1
  • V. A. Telegin
    • 1
  • K. G. Tsybulya
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, the Ionosphere, and Radiowave PropagationRussian Academy of SciencesTroitsk, Moscow oblastRussia
  2. 2.Institute of Applied GeophysicsMoscowRussia

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