Advertisement

Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Genesis of the Yessentuki Deposit of Carbonated Waters, North Caucasus

Abstract—The existing models of the formation of the Yessentuki mineral water deposits are analyzed on the basis of geothermal features of the formation, major and trace-element characteristics of salt composition, as well as isotope composition of aqueous (δ18О and δ2Н) and gas (δ13С in СО2 and СН4, 3Не/4Не) phases of carbonated mineral waters of the North Cis-Caucasus. It has been shown that water uptake from the Nagut deposit can provide the formation of salt composition of waters of the Yessentuki Deposit, but does not explain completely the observed differences in isotope composition of gas and water phases of these deposits. This can be explained only by additional influx of matter (mainly gases) non-related with the Nagut deposit. It was hypothesized that the Yessentuki “hydrochloric–alkaline” waters could be of “relict” origin.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 11.
Fig. 12.
Fig. 13.
Fig. 14.
Fig. 15.

Notes

  1. 1.

    Mechanism of water enrichment by boron could be more complex, since waters from horizons К1 and К2 of the Nagut deposit and horizon К2 of the Yessentuki deposit are characterized by almost identical values of Cl/B-coefficient (values are mainly from 200 to 300). The boron concentration correlates not only with Cl ion, but also with

REFERENCES

  1. 1

    Carbonated Mineral Waters of North Caucasus, Ed. by I. Ya. Panteleeva (AN SSSR, Moscow, 1963) [in Russian].

  2. 2

    Caucasian Mineral Waters, Ed. by V. V. Ivanov (TSNIIKF, Moscow, 1972) [in Russian].

  3. 3

    E. M. Galimov, Geochemistry of Stable Carbon Isotopes (Nedra, Moscow, 1968) [in Russian].

  4. 4

    E. M. Galimov, “Isotope organic geochemistry,” Org. Geochem. 37, 1200–1262 (2006).

  5. 5

    R. A. Horne, Marine Chemistry. The Structure of Water and the Chemistry of Hydrosphere (Wiley-Interscience, New York–London–Sydney, 1969).

  6. 6

    M. Javoy and F. Pineau, “The volatiles record of “popping” rock from Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 14° N. Chemical and isotopic composition of the gas trapped in the vesicles,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett.107 (3–4), 598–611 (1991).

  7. 7

    M. Javoy, F. Pineau, and H. Delorme, “Carbon and nitrogen isotopes in the mantle,” Chem. Geol. 57 (1), 41–62 (1986).

  8. 8

    V. Yu. Lavrushin, Underground Fluids of the Great Caucasus and its Framing. Ed, by B. G. Polyak (GEOS, Moscow, 2012) [in Russian].

  9. 9

    S. I. Lyashenko and E. G. Potapov, “Deuterium and oxygen-18 in the ground and surface waters of the great area of the Caucasian Mineral Waters,” Resort Resources of the Northern Caucasus (PNIIKiF, Pyatigorsk, 1984), pp. 76–90 [in Russian].

  10. 10

    A. M. Ovchinnikov, “Pecularities of mountainous hydrogeology,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 54 (3), 259–262 (1946).

  11. 11

    A. M. Ovchinnikov, “Main principles of zoning of mineral waters of Caucasus,” Tr. MGRI 23, (1948).

  12. 12

    I. Ya. Panteleev, Essentuku hydrochloric–alkaline waters in the Caucasian Mineral Water Systems (AN SSSR, Moscow, 1963) [in Russian].

  13. 13

    F. Pineau and M. Javoy, “Carbon isotopes and concentrations in mid-ocean ridge basalts,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 46 (3), 371–379 (1983).

  14. 14

    B. G. Pokrovsky, Crustal Contamination of Mantle Magmas. Evidence from Isotope Geochemistry (MAIK, Moscow, 2000) [in Russian].

  15. 15

    B. G. Polyak, I. N. Tolstikhin, L. E. Yakovlev, B. Marty, and A. L. Cheshko, “Helium isotopes, tectonics and heat flow in the Norten Caucasus,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 64 (11), 1925–1944 (2000).

  16. 16

    V. A. Polyakov, and L. G. Sokolovsky, Genesis and Dynamics of Mineral Waters of Caucasus: Results of Isotope-Geochemical Studies (Geoinformmark, Moscow, 2005) [in Russian].

  17. 17

    E. G. Potapov, and S. R. Danilov, “History of study of carbonated mineral waters of the Essentuki deposit,” Kurortnaya Meditsina, No. 3, 9–12 (2012).

  18. 18

    A. A. Roshal, and A. N. Klyukvin, Report: A Comparative Analysis of Conditions of Formation of Carbonated Mineral Groundwaters of the Essentuki and Nagutskoe deposits of the Caucasian Mineral Waters (ZAO “Geolink Konsalting”, 2017), Vol. 1 [in Russian.

  19. 19

    S. A. Shagoyants, “Pecularities of vertical zoning of groundwaters in the Essentuki disturbance zone at CMW,” Proc. 5th Conference on Geology and Mineral Resources of North Caucasus (Essentuki, 1980), pp. 345–346 [in Russian].

  20. 20

    A. L. Shinkorenko, “Hydrogeochemical characteristics and genetic problems of the Essentuki carbonated waters,” Tr. Gos. Bal’neolog. Inst. KMV 23–25, 457–460 (1946).

Download references

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We are grateful to E.G. Potapov for help in the performance of field and laboratory studies, valuable comments, and discussion of obtained materials.

Funding

Expedition studies and analysis of isotope characteristics of waters were supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project no. 17-05-00486). The studies of carbon isotope composition of methane and carbon dioxide were supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project no. 18-17-00245).

Author information

Correspondence to V. Yu. Lavrushin or A. B. Lisenkov.

Additional information

Translated by M. Bogina

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Lavrushin, V.Y., Lisenkov, A.B. & Aidarkozhina, A.S. Genesis of the Yessentuki Deposit of Carbonated Waters, North Caucasus. Geochem. Int. 58, 77–90 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1134/S0016702920010085

Download citation

Keywords:

  • mineral carbonated waters
  • chemical (salt) composition of groundwaters
  • gases
  • trace elements
  • oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition
  • water genesis