Geochemistry International

, Volume 46, Issue 9, pp 867–886 | Cite as

Thermodynamic model of the formation of ore bodies at the Akchatau wolframite greisen-vein deposit

  • A. Yu. Bychkov
  • S. S. Matveeva


The Akchatau wolframite deposit in central Kazakhstan is a typical greisen deposit. Extensive geological and geochemical data, including those on numerous geochemical signatures (isotopic composition of O, H, C, noble gases, data on fluid inclusions, REE, and others) allowed us to decipher the physicochemical conditions and main factors that caused metasomatism and ore formation. Physicochemical modeling by the HCh program package (designed by Yu.B. Shvarov) was applied to reconstruct the composition of the greisenizing solution, cooling, boiling, interaction with granites; condensation of the gas phase; and fluid mixing. The predominant species of W transfer, (NaHWO 4 aq 0 ), and precipitation factors were determined. In small ore bodies, precipitation was caused by a temperature decrease. The precipitation of wolframite in near-vein greisens is related to the interaction of boiling highly mineralized solutions with host granites. Boiling does not affect wolframite precipitation but increases the content and ore potential of the greisenizing fluids, facilitating the formation of high-grade wolframite ores. In the filling veins of these bodies, ore precipitation is related to the dilution of solutions by weakly mineralized exogenic waters and the condensate of the gas phase. Tungsten mineralization of the Akchatau deposit was formed in an oxidizing environment, which is controlled by granite minerals during mobilization of ore components.


Pyrite Geochemistry International Meteoric Water Carbon Isotopic Composition Oxygen Isotopic Composition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    G. N. Shcherba, Formation of Rare-Metal Deposits in Central Kazakhstan (Izd-vo AN Kaz. SSR, Alma-Ata, 1960) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    V. G. Bogolepov, O. S. Marinkin, A. S. Kulikovskii, et al., “Structure, Composition, and Distribution of Mineralization in Main Greisen Bodies of the Akchatau Rare-Metal Deposit (Central Kazakhstan),” in Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Tungsten Deposits (Leningr. Gos. Univ., Leningrad, 1971), pp. 97–104 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    F. G. Reif, Ore-Forming Potential of Granites and Conditions of Its Formation (Nauka, Moscow, 1990) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    G. P. Zaraiskii, Yu. B. Shapovalov, Yu. B. Soboleva, et al., “Physicochemical Conditions of Greisenization at the Akchatau Deposit Based on Geological and Experimental Data,” in Experimental Problems in Geology (Nauka, Moscow, 1994), pp. 371–419 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    V. A. Zharikov and G. P. Zaraiskii, “Genesis of the Akchatau Greisen Deposit: Numerical Modeling,” in Smirnov’s Collected Papers-95 (Mosk. Gos. Univ., Moscow, 1995), pp. 29–90 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Yu. Korotaev and S. S. Matveeva, “Genetic Aspects of the Formation of Greisen-Ore Deposits,” in Crystalline Crust in Space and Time (Metamorphic and Hydrothermal Processes) (Nauka, Moscow, 1990), pp. 177–191 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    E. N. Bastrakov, “Isotopic-Composition of Ore-Bearing Fluids of the Akchatau Deposit (Central Kazakhstan),” in Proceedings of 16th Youth Scientific Conference of Geological Faculty (MGU, Moscow, 1990) pp. 5–12 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S. S. Matveeva, A. B. Verkhovskii, E. K. Yurgina, et al., “Origin and Evolution of Ore-Bearing Fluids of the Akchatau Deposit Based on Noble Gas and Oxygen Isotopy,” Geokhimiya, No. 3, 333–342 (1991).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Yu. Korotaev, S. S. Matveeva, Yu. Yu. Alekhina, et al., “Geochemical Model of Greisen Formation,” in Experimental Problems in Geology (Nauka, Moscow, 1994), pp. 419–446 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. Yu. Korotaev, Physical Geochemistry of Greisen Formation (Nauka, Moscow, 1994) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. S. Matveeva, “Rare Earth Elements as Geochemical Indicators of the Nature of Ore-Bearing Fluids at Greisen Association Deposits,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 351, 249–252 (1996) [Dokl. Earth Sci. 351, 1319–1322 (1996)].Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    S. S. Matveeva, “Evolution of Ore-Forming Processes at the Akchatau Greisen-Type Deposit: Evidence from Geochemical Indicators,” Petrologiya 5(3), 326–336 (1997) [Petrology 5, 291–300 (1997)].Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    N. Ya. Gulyaeva and V. G. Bogolepov, “Some Typomorphic Features of Topaz as Indicators of Rare-Metal Mineralization with Reference to a Deposit in Central Kazakhstan,” in Proceedings of 6th Conference on Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Genesis, and Complex Mining of Tungsten Deposits of the Soviet Union (Leningrad, 1981), pp. 12–13 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yu. P. Doroshenko and N. N. Pavlun, “Data on Fluid Inclusions as a Clue to the Conditions under which Molybdenum-Tungsten Deposits of Central Kazakhstan were Formed,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 273(4), 969–972 (1983).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. G. Kryazhev, Yu. V. Vasyuta, and M. K. Kharrasov, “Method of Analysis of Fluid Inclusions in Quartz,” in Proceedings of 10th International Conference on Fluid Inclusions, Aleksandrov, Russia, 2001 (VNIISIMS, Aleksandrov, 2001), pp. 6–9.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    K. I. Lokhov, I. M. Morozova, and L. K. Levskii, “Mass-Spectrometric Studies of Volatiles in the Rocks of the Outer-Contact of the Alkaline-Ultrabasic Intrusion,” in Isotopic Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry (Nauka, Moscow, 1990), pp. 177–185 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    A. V. Ignatiev and L. V. Borovik, Automatic Equipment for Determining C, N, O, S Isotopic Composition and Techniques of Sample Preparation, in Proceedings of 5th Working Meeting: Isotopes in Nature, Leipzig, Germany, 1989 (Leipzig, 1989), pp. 853–856.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. M. Aksyuk, “Experimentally Established Geofluorimeters and the Fluorine Regime in Granite-Related Fluids,” Petrologiya 10(6), 630–644 (2002) [Petrology 10, 557–569 (2002)].Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. I. Zakharchenko, Yu. V. Levitskii, and A. A. Moskalyuk, “Localization and Conditions of Formation of Rare Metal Deposits Based on Liquid Inclusions in the Wolframite and Associated Minerals,” in Proceedings of 4th Regional Conference on Thermobarogeochemistry of Mineral Formation, Rostov na Donu, Russia, 1973 (Rostov-na-Donu, 1983), pp. 59–61 (1973).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    T. M. Sushchevskaya, K. I. Lokhov, and S. S. Matveeva, and N. I. Prisyagina, “Gas Components of Mineralizing Fluids of the Akchatau and Spokoinoe Wolframite Deposits,” in Proceedings of International Conference on Thermobarogeochemistry, Aleksandrov, Russia, 2001. (VNIISIM, Aleksandrov, 2001), pp. 180–192.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    S. S. Matveeva and A. Yu. Bychkov, “Carbon Isotope Fractionation in Fluids during the Formation of the Spokoinoe Wolframite Deposit,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 381(3), 403–405 (2001) [Dokl. Earth Sci. 381, 1057–1059 (2001)].Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    G. P. Zaraiskii and V. N. Balashov, “Thermal Decompaction of Rocks and Its Role in the Formation of Hydrothermal Ore Systems” (Nauka, Moscow, 1986), pp. 694–700 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    V. M. Shmonov, G. P. Zaraiskii, V. M. Vitovtova, et al., “Evolution of the Pore-Fissured Space and Fluid Flow in the Area of veins 152 and 153 of the Akchatau Granitoid Intrusion,” in Experimental and Theoretical Modeling of Mineral Formation (Nauka, Moscow, 1998), pp. 189–210 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    V. A. Zharikov, M. Yu. Korotaev, S. S. Matveeva, et al., “Infiltration Metasomatism in Gradient Fields: Problems of the Origin of Greisen Ore Bodies,” in Proceedings of 25th SGA Anniversary Meeting on Source, Transport and Deposition of Metals, Nancy, France, 1991 (Nancy, 1991), pp. 151–153.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. Yu. Spasennykh, S. S. Matveeva, and T. M. Sushchevskaya, “Fluid-Rock Interaction near Large Vein Bodies: Isotopic Evidence,” Geokhimiya, No. 12, 1322–1332 (2005) [Geochem. Int. 43, 1217–1227 (2005)].Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    E. N. Bastrakov, M. Yu. Korotaev, S. S. Matveeva, and V. A. Suvorova, “Isotope-Oxygen Zoning of Greisen-Ore Bodies of the Akchatau Deposit,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 307(5), 1212–1215 (1989).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Geological-Genetic and Physicochemical Basis of the Models of Greisen Ore Formation (Nauka, Novosibirsk, 1992) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    G. P. Shironosova, G. R. Kolonin, and T. M. Sushchevskaua, “Thermodynamic Modeling of the Influence of Isothermal Dilution on the Tungsten-Bearing Potential of Ore-Forming Fluid,” Geochem. Int. 39(Suppl. 2), 235–240 (2001).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    A. Yu. Bychkov and V. V. Zuikov, “Solubility of Tungstic Acid and Species of Tungsten Transfer in Sodium Chloride at 25°C,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 400(1), 69–71 (2005) [Dokl. Earth Sci. 400, 49–51 (2005)].Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    M. V. Borisov, Geochemical and Thermodynamic Models of Vein Hydrothermal Ore Formation (Nauchnyi Mir, Moscow, 2000) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    D. V. Grichuk, Thermodynamic Models of Submarine Hydrothermal Systems (Nauchnyi Mir, Moscow, 2000) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yu. V. Shvarov and E. Bastrakov, HCh: A Software Package for Geochemical Equilibrium Modelling. User’s Guide (Australian Geol. Surv. Organization, Canberra, 1999).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    S. A. Wood and D. Vlassopoulos, “Experimental Determination of the Solubility and Speciation of Tungsten at 500°C and 1 kbar,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, No. 2, 303–312 (1989).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    M. V. Borisov and Yu. V. Shvarov, Thermodynamics of Geochemical Processes (Mosk. Gos. Univ., Moscow, 1992) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    O. V. Bryzgalin, “On the Solubility of Tungstic Acid in Aqueous-Salt Solutions at High Temperatures,” Geokhimiya, No. 6, 864–869 (1976).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geological FacultyMoscow State UniversityLeninskie gory, MoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations