Advertisement

Geochemistry International

, Volume 45, Issue 3, pp 235–246 | Cite as

Physicochemical model for the generation of the isotopic composition of the carbonate travertine produced by the Tokhana spring, mount Elbrus area, northern Caucasus

  • A. Yu. Bychkov
  • O. E. Kikvadze
  • V. Yu. Lavrushin
  • V. N. Kuleshov
Article

Abstract

The isotopic composition of calcite from travertine deposits of the Tokhana-Verkhnii hot spring in the Elbrus area shows broad variations in δ13C and δ18O (from +3.8 to +16.3‰ and from +24.6 to +28.1‰, respectively). The δ13C and δ18O values increase toward the sole of the travertine dome. The isotopically heaviest carbonates (δ13C of up to +16.3‰) were found near the bottom of the dome and composed ancient travertine, which are now not washed by mineral water. The scatter of the δ13C values of the fresh sample is slightly narrower: from +3.8 to +10‰. Calculations indicate that all carbonates of the Tokhana dome were not in equilibrium with spontaneous carbon dioxide released by the spring (\(\delta ^{13} C_{CO_2 } \) = −8‰). To explain the generation of isotopically heavy travertine, a physicochemical model was developed for precipitation of Ca carbonates during the gradual degassing of the mineral water. The character of variations in the calculated δ13C values (from +5.5 to +13‰) is in good agreement with the tendency in the variations of the δ13C in the carbonate samples. The calculated and measured pH values are also consistent. Our results demonstrate that the isotopic composition of large travertine masses can be heterogeneous, and this should be taken into account during paleoclimatic and paleohydrogeological reconstruction.

Keywords

Calcite Isotopic Composition Mineral Water Geochemistry International Travertine 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    A. Pentecost, “The Quaternary Travertine Deposits of Europe and Asia Minor,” Quat. Sci. Rev. 14, 1005–1028 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. I. Naboko, I. P. Lugovaya, and V. N. Zagnitko, “Carbon and Oxygen Isotopic Composition in Recent Travertines and Geyserites of Kamchatka,” Mineral. Zh. 21(5/6), 33–39 (1999).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    C. Savelli and K. H. Wederpohl, “Geochimishe Untersuchengen an Sinterkalken (Travertinen),” Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 21, 238–256 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    A. Navas, B.L. Valero-Garces, A. Delgado-Huertas, and N. Ratto, “Large 13C Enrichment in Primary Carbonates from Andean Altiplano Lakes, Northwest Argentina,” Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 171, 253–266 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    J. E. Andrews, R. Riding, and P. F. Dennis, “The Stable Isotope Record of Environmental and Climatic Signals in Modern Terrestrial Microbial Carbonates from Europe,” Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 129, 171–189 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Carbon Dioxide Mineral Waters in the Northern Caucasus, Ed. by I. Ya. Panteleeva (izd-vo AN SSSR, Moscow, 1963) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. M. McCrea, “On the Isotope Chemistry of Carbonates and Paleotemperature Scale,” J. Chem. Phys. 18, 849–857 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    C. H. Hendy, “The Isotopic Geochemistry of Speleothems.—I. The Calculation of the Effects of Different Modes of Formation on the Isotopic Composition of Speleothems and Their Applicability as Palaeoclimatic Indicators,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 35, 801–824 (1971).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Geodynamics, Seismotectonics, and Volcanism of the Northern Caucasus, Ed. by N. P. Laverov (OIFZ RAN, Moscow, 2001) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    S. S. Matveeva and A. Yu. Bychkov, “Carbon Isotope Fractionation in Fluids during the Formation of the Spokoinoe Wolframite Deposit,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 381, 403–405 (2001) [Dokl. Earth Sci. 381A, 1057–1060 (2001)].Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. S. Matveeva, M. Yu. Spasennykh, T. M. Sushchevskaya, et al., “Geochemical Model of the Formation of the Spokoininsk Tungsten Deposit (Eastern Transbaikal Region, Russia),” Geol. Rudn. Mestorozhd. 44, 125–147 (2002) [Geol. Ore Dep. 44, 111–131 (2002)].Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Yu. V. Shvarov and E. Bastrakov, “HCh: A Software Package for Geochemical Equilibrium Modelling. User’s Guide,” in Australian Geological Survey Organization (Canberra, 1999).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    V. P. Il’chenko, T. V. Levshenko, A. Yu. Bychkov, and V. S. Goncharov, Salt Accumulation during Exploitation of Gas and Gas condensate Deposits (IRTs Gazprom, Moscow, 1999) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    L. N. Bannikova and B. N. Ryzhenko, “Carbon and Sulfur Isotopic Ratio in the Products of Redox Reactions under Hydrothermal Conditions (System CH4-Na2SO4-NaCl-H2O),” Geokhimiya, No. 9, 1268–1281 (1984).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    L. N. Bannikova, D. V. Grichuk, and B. N. Ryzhenko, “Calculations of Chemical and Isotopic Equilibria in the C-H-O System and Their Application to the Study of Redox Reactions under Hydrothermal Conditions,” Geokhimiya, No. 3, 416–428 (1987).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    D. V. Grichuk, “Isotopic-Chemical Thermodynamic Model of Hydrothermal Systems,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 298(5), 1222–1225 (1988).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    D. V. Grichuk, Thermodynamic Models of Submarine Hydrothermal Systems (Nauchnyi Mir, Moscow, 2000) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    H. Ohmoto, “Systematic of Sulfur and Carbon Isotopes in Hydrothermal Ore Deposits,” Econ. Geol. 65(5), 551–578 (1972).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    P. Deines, D. Langmuir, and R. S. Harmon, “Stable Carbon Isotope Ratios and the Existence of a Gas Phase in the Evolution of Carbonate Ground Waters,” Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 38, 1147–1164 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    I. Friedman and J. R. O’Neil, “Complication stable isotope fractionation factors of geochemical interest. Data of Geochemistry,” US. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap., No. 440-KK (1977).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Yu. Bychkov
    • 1
  • O. E. Kikvadze
    • 2
  • V. Yu. Lavrushin
    • 2
  • V. N. Kuleshov
    • 2
  1. 1.Geological FacultyMoscow State UniversityLeninskie gory, MoscowRussia
  2. 2.Geological Institute (GIN)Russian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations