Entomological Review

, Volume 88, Issue 2, pp 218–232 | Cite as

A review of encyrtid wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Encyrtidae) of Macaronesia

  • V. A. Trjapitzin


The review contains an annotated list of 62 species of Encyrtidae from Macaronesia with data on their distribution, hosts, and use in biological control of agricultural insect pests. An attempt is undertaken to classify most of them according to nine types of ranges and to separate species which were introduced to Macaronesia by the ecesis, i.e., accidentally with their hosts. Three genera are synonymized: Acerophagus E.A. Smith, 1880 (= Pseudaphycus Timberlake, 1916, syn. n.); Isodromus Howard, 1887 (= Eupoecilopoda Erdös et S. Novicky, 1955, syn. n.); Syrphophagus Ashmead, 1900 (= Tassonia Girault, 1921, syn. n.). Cerchysiella togashii Tachikawa, 1988 is placed in the genus Zaommoencyrtus Girault, 1916. Cerchysiella koenigsmanni (Trjapitzin, 1985) is considered a subjective synonym of C. latiscapus (Shafee et Fatma, 1984). The following replacement names are given: Acerophagus xuzhihongi Trjapitzin, nom. n. for A. clavatus Xu Zhihong, 1999 non A. clavatus Pilipjuk, 1981; and Anagyrus sergueii Trjapitzin, nom. n. for Anagyrus orbitalis Timberlake, 1941 non A. orbitalis (Ruschka, 1923). Material on encyrtids from the Macaronesian islands Tenerife and Madeira in the museums in Madrid, Helsinki and Washington were examined.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Arozarena Doblado, R., “Nuevas citas para Canarias de la subfamilia Encyrtinae (Hymenoptera),” Graellsia (Madrid) 22, 48–56 (1966).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Báez, M. and Ortega, G., “Lista preliminar de los Himenopteros de las Islas Canarias,” Bol. Asoc. Espaniola Entomol. 2, 185–199 (1978).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Báez, M. and Sanchez-Pinto, L., Islas de fuego y agua Canarias, Azores, Madeira, Salvajes, Cabo Verde. Macaronesia (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Islas Canarias), Edirca, S.L., 1983).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Carrero, J.M., Limon F., and Panis, A., “Note biologique sur quelques insectes entomophages vivant sur olivier et sur agrumes en Espagne,” Bol. Asoc. Espanola Entomol. 2, 549–550 (1978).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dahms, E. and Gordh, G., A Review of the Genera of Australian Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) Described from Australia by A. A. Girault with a Checklist of Included Species (Mem. Entomol. J. Int., 1978).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Ferriere, C., “Chalcidiens des iles du Cap Vert,” Comments. Biol. Soc. Sc. Fennica 23, 1–10 (1960).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gijswijt, M.J., “Chalcidiens of the Canary Islands,” Vieraea 18, 103–112 (1993).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Graham, M.W.R. de V., “The Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) of Madeira: a Preliminary List,” Entomol. Gaz. 30(4), 271–287 (1979).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Graham, M.W.R. de V., “A Survey of Madeiran Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera) with Additions and Descriptions of New Taxa,” Bocagiana (Funchal, Madeira) 58, 1–20 (1981).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Graham, M.W.R. de V., “Chalcidoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera) collected in Madeira by Mr. A. van Harten,” Bocagiana (Funchal, Madeira) 8, 1–4 (1984).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Graham, M.W.R. de V., “Madeira Insects (chiefly Hymenoptera) Including Additions to the List and Descriptions of Three New Species of Chalcidoidea,” Bol. Mus. Mun. Funchal (Madeira) 38(173), 28–42 (1986).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Graham, M.W.R. de V., “Revision of the Western European Species of Ericydnus Haliday (Hym., Encyrtidae), Including One Species New to Science,” Entomol. Monthly Mag. 127(1528–1531), 177–189 (1991).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Graham, M.W.R. de V., “Diagnostic Characters of Some Critical Species of British Encyrtidae,” Entomol. Monthly Mag. 130(183–186).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Guerrieri, E. and Noyes, J.S., “Revision of European Species of Genus Metaphycus Mercet (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae), Parasitoids of Scale Insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea),” Systematic Entomol. 25, 147–222 (2000).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Guerrieri, E. and Noyes, J.S., “Revision of the European Species of Copidosoma Ratzeburg (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), Parasitoids of Caterpillas (Lepidoptera), Systematic Entomol. 30, 97–174 (2005).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Harten, van, A., “Sobre identificação de insectos, a formação de uma coleccao e a inventariação da entomofauna de Cabo Verde,” Inv. Agr., S. Jorge dos Orgaos 2, 9–24 (1988).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Harten, van, A. and Gijswijt, M.J., “Chalcidoidea (Hymenoptera) of the Cape Verde Islands,” Courier Forschungsinst. Senckenberg (Frankfurt am M.) 193, 395–401 (1993).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hayat, M., “Records and Descriptions of Indian Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea),” Oriental Insects 37, 187–259 (2003).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Hayat, M., Indian Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) (Aligarh Muslim Univ., 2006).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hoffer, A., “Zweiter Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Arten der Familie Encyrtidae (Hym., halcidoidea) Jugoslawiens,” Studia Entomol. Forestalia (Praha) 2(2), 19–39 (1975).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Ilyinskaya, M.I., Pests of Greenhouse Plants (Nauka, Moscow, 1963) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kerrich, G.J., “On the Differences Between the Encyrtid Genera Dicarnosis Mercet and Comperia Gomes, and the Designation of a Neotype of Aminellus Masi (Hym., Chalcidoidea),” J. Entomol. Ser. B 43(1), 103–107 (1974).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Klausnitzer, B., “Zur Kenntnis der Entomoparasiten mitteleuropaischer Coccinellidae,” Abh. Ber. Naturkundemus. Gorlitz 44(9) (1969).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kriventsov, Yu.I. and Chumak, P.Ya., Proceedings of the 1st Conference on the Industrial Breeding of Insects. Moscow February 4–6, 1986 (Moscow, 1986), pp. 37–38.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lima, M.L., “Principals pragas de culturas em Cabo Verde. Perspectivas de lutta integrada,” Bol. Soc. Portug. Entomol. 7(A), 35–46 (1982).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mercet, R.G., “Calcididos de Espana,” Bol. Real Soc. Esp. Hist. Natur. 16, 112–117 (1916).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mercet, R.G., “Notas sobre Encirtinos (Himenopteros calcididos),” Bol. Real Soc. Esp. Hist. Natur. 19, 470–478 (1919).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mercet, R.G., “Encirtidos de Canarias,” Bol. Real Soc. Esp. Hist. Natur. 23, 128–145 (1923).Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mercet, R.G., “Los generos Leptomastidea, Callipteroma y Gyranusa,” Bol. Real Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. 24, 252–260 (1924).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mercet, R.G., “Calcididos africanos y de la isla de Madera,” Eos 3(4), 489–499 (1927).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Noyes, J.S., “New Chalcids Recorded from Great Britain and Notes on Some Walker Species (Hym., Encyrtidae, Eulophidae),” Entomol. Monthly Mag. 113(1352–1355), 9–13 (1978).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Noyes, J.S., “On the Types of the Species of Encyrtidae Described by R. Garcia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea),” Eos 55/56, 165–189 [1981 (1979–1980)].Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Noyes, J.S., “Encyrtidae (Insecta: Hymenoptera),” Fauna of New Zealand 13, 1–188 (1988).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Noyes, J.S., “Encyrtidae of Costa Rica (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea): 1. The Subfamily Tetracneminae, Parasitoids of Mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae),” Mem. Amer. Entomol. Inst. 62, 1–355.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Noyes, J.S., “Encyrtidae of Costa Rica (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea): 2. Metaphycus and Related Genera, Parasitoids of Scale Insects (Coccoidea) and Whiteflies (Aleyrodidae),” Mem. Amer. Entomol. Inst. 73, 1–459 (2004).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Noyes, J.S. and Hayat, M. Oriental Mealybug Parasitoids of the Anagyrini (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) with a World Review of Encyrtidae Used in Classical Biological Control and an Index of Encyrtid Parasitoids of Mealybugs (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) (CAB International, Wallingford, 1994).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Prinsloo, G.L., “The Afrotropical Species of Leptomastidea Mercet (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), Parasitoids of Mealybugs,” J. Hym. Res. 10(2), 145–162 (2001).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Reed, E.K., Hart, W.G., and Ingle, S.J., “Laboratory Rearing of Brown Soft Scale and Its Hymenopterous Parasites,” Ann. Entomol. Soc. America 61(6), 1443–1446 (1968).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rosen, D., “A New Species of Pseudaphycus [Hym.: Encyrtidae], with Notes on the angelicus Group,” Entomophaga 26(3), 251–263 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Sakhnov, V.I., “A Revised Key to Palaearctic Species of the Genus Charitopus Forster, 1856 (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) with the Description of a New Species from Tenerife (Canary Islands),” Entomol. Obozr. 74(4), 889–893 (1995).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Schweizer, H., Morse, J.G., Luck, R.F., and Forster, L.D., “Augmentative Releases of a Parasitoid (Metaphycus sp. near flavus) against Citricola Scale (Coccus pseudomagnoliarum) on Orange in the San Joaquin Valley of California,” Biol. Control 24, 153–166 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sinadskii, Yu.V. and Kozarzhevskaya, E.F., “Biological Protection of Decorative Flower Plants,” Zashchita Rastenii 10, 21–22 (1980).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Smirnoff, W.A., “Observations sur les predateurs et parasites des cochenilles nuisibles du Maroc et sur leurs ennemis,” Travaux originaux, Serv. Def. Veg. Div. Agr. Elev. Minist. Agr. et Forets, Empire Cherifien (Rabat) 11, 1–60 (1956).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tachikawa, T., “Three Species of Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera),” Trans. Shikoku Entomol. Soc. 5(4), 55–57 (1957).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Takhtadzhyan, A.L., Floristic Areas of the Earth (Nauka, Leningrad, 1978) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Timberlake, P.H., “Encyrtidae of the Marquesas and Society Islands (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea),” Occasional Papers of Bernice P. Bishop Mus. (Honolulu, Hawaii) 16(9) (1941).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Triapitsyn, S.V., Gonzalez, D., Vickerman D. B., et al., “Morphological, Biological, and Molecular Comparisons Among the Different Geographical Populations of Anagyrus pseudococci (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), Parasitoids of Planococcus spp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), With Notes on Anagyrus dactylopii,” Biol. Control 41, 14–24 (2007).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Trjapitzin, V.A., “Contribution to the Knowledge of Parasitic Hymenoptera of the Genus Metaphycus Mercet, 1917 (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Encyrtidae) of Czechoslovakian Fauna,” Studia Entomol. Forestalia (Praha) 2(1), 5–17 (1975).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Trjapitzin, V.A., Encyrtid Parasitic Wasps (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) of the Palaearctic. Keys to the Fauna of the USSR Published by the Zoological Institute, Academy of Sciences of the USSR (Nauka, Leningrad, 1989) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Trjapitzin, V.A., “A Review of Encyrtid Parasitic Wasps (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Encyrtidae) of Leningrad Province,” Entomol. Obozr. 73(1), 153–194 (1994).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Trjapitzin, V.A., “New Data on the Encyrtidae of France (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea),” Zoosyst. Rossica 9(2), 447–448 (2001).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Trjapitzin, V.A., “Bajamaria subgen. n. of the Genus Incisencyrtus from the Canarian Island Tenerife (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae),” Zoosyst. Rossica 14(1), 153–154 (2005).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Trjapitzin, V.A. and Myartseva, S.N., “Especies del genero Encyrtus Latreille (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) en Mexico, America Central, Indias Occidentales y Bermudas,” Vedalia (Chapingo, Mexico) 11, 17–33 [2004 (2002)].Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Trjapitzin, V.A. and Ruiz Cancino, E., A Review of Encyrtids (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae) of the World Fauna with Reduced Number of Funicle Segments of Antenna. (Cd. Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico, 2002).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Trjapitzin, V.A. and Ruiz Cancino, E., “On Hypothetic Routes of Ecesis of Mycroterys nietneri (Motschulsky, 1859) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an Effective Parasitoid of Coccidae (Homoptera),” in Parasitic Wasps. Evolution, Systematics, Biodiversity and Biological Control (Budapest, Agroinform, 2002), pp. 82–88.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Trjapitzin, V.A. and Ruiz Cancino, E., “Homalotylus eytelweinii Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) en Guatemala,” Vedalia (Chapingo, Mexico) 9–10, 27–30 (2003).Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Trjapitzin, V. A. and Ruiz Cancino, E., “Dicarnosis ripariensis Kerrich (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) en los estados de Michoaćan y Veracruz, México,” Bio Tarn, N.S. (Cd. Victoria, Tamaulipas, México) 14(1), 69–71 [2006 (2003)].Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Trjapitzin, V.A. and Triapitsyn, S.V., “A New Species of Homalotylus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Mexico, Parasitoid of Azya orbigera orbigera (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae),” Entomol. News 14(4), 192–196 (2004).Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Trjapitzin, V.A., Manukyan, A.R., and Sakhnov, N.J., “Palaearctic Species of the Genus Syrphophagus (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) Reared from Syrphids (Diptera, Syrphidae),” Int. J. Dipt. Res. 6(1), 33–38 (1995).Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Trjapitzin, V.A., Myartseya, S.N., Chouvakhina, E.Ya., and Ruiz-Cancino, E., “Redescripción de Blepyrus hansoni Noyes (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) del Estado de San Luis Potosi, México,” Bio/Tam N. S., (Cd. Victoria, Tamaulipas, México) 15(1), 17–22 [2007 (2004)].Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Vulf, V.E., Historical Geography of Plants. History of Floras of the Globe (Nauka, Moscow, 1944) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Walker, F., “Notes on Chalcidites, and Descriptions of Various New Species,” Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 3, 204–210 (1849).Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Walker, F., Notes on Chalcidiae. Pt. 7 (London, 1872), pp. 109–129.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© MAIK Nauka 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. A. Trjapitzin
    • 1
  1. 1.Russian Entomological SocietyMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations