Entomological Review

, Volume 86, Supplement 2, pp S189–S200 | Cite as

Testate amoebae (Testacea) in a Formica lugubris nest: Fauna composition and structure

  • G. A. Korganova
  • A. A. Rakhleeva


The fauna of testate amoebae (Testacea) in a Formica lugubris anthill and in litter layers from the control soil area in a spruce forest, Moscow region, was represented by a total of 43 species and subspecies. Their numbers ranged from 11000 ind./g air-dry substrate in the surface layer of the anthill to 62000 ind./g in the lower litter layer A0H/A1, with variation in species diversity between the samples being insignificant (24–30 species). Representatives of the genera Centropyxis, Cyclopyxis, Plagiopyxis, Corythion, and Trinema were dominant, whereas most of other species were few in numbers. The group of testacean species in the anthill was not specific, being a derivative of the testacean complex inhabiting the surrounding soil. Differences between litter layers and between these layers and substrates from the anthill concerned mainly the composition of the testacean community, which proved to change in the course of plant material decomposition: the aerophilic complex of upper layers (dominated by Centropyxis aerophila and Trinema lineare) was substituted by an edaphophilic complex (with Plagiopyxis declivis being dominant) in the nest mound of the anthill and in the lower litter layers. Plagiopyxis penardi was a eudominant species in the nest mound. Its especially high abundance is explained by deep transformation of plant remains in the nest (from moder to mull-like substrate) as the result of ant life activities.


Entomological Review Litter Layer Soddy Podzolic Soil Reference Soil Green Moss 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    F. B. Baksht, “Anthill as a Unique Geological-Geophysical Object,” in Proceedings of XII All-Russian Myrmecological Symposium (Novosibirsk, 2005), pp. 196–201.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. A. Bobrov, S. B. Yazvenko, and B. G. Warner, “Taxonomic and Ecological Implications of Shell Morphology of Three Teataceans (Protozoa, Rhizopoda) in Russia and Canada,” Arch. Protistenk. 145, 119–126 (1995).Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    L. Bonnet, “Quelques Aspects des Populations thécamoebiens endogées,” Bul. Soc. Hist. Nat. Toulouse 94(3–4), 413–428 (1959).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    L. Bonnet, “Les Théecamoebiens, indicateurs pédologiques, et la notion de climax,” Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Toulouse 96, 80–86 (1961).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    L. Bonnet, “Ecologie du genre Plagiopyxis (Thécamoebiens des sols),” Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Toulouse 124, 13–21 (1988).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    L. Bonnet, “Donneés écologiques sur quelques Centropyxidae (Thécamoebiens des sols),” Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Toulouse 125, 7–16 (1989).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. Bonnet and R. Thomas, “Thécamoebiens du sol,” in Faune terrestre et d’eau douce des Pyréneés-Orientales F 5, 1–103 (1960).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    D. Chardez, “Ecologie générale des Thécamoebiens (Rhizopoda, Testacea),” Bull. Inst. Agron. Stat. Rech. Gembl. 33(3), 307–341 (1965).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. Chardez, “Thécamoebiens terricoles,” Rev. Verv. Hist. Nat. 29(1–9), 1–20 (1972).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    D. Coenen-Stass, B. Schaazschmidt, and I. Lamprecht, “Temperature Distribution and Calometric Determination of Heat Production in the Nest of Wood Ant, Formica polyctena (Hymenoptera, Formicidae),” Ecology 61, 238–242 (1980).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    M.-M. Coûteaux, “Dynamism de l’équilibre des Thécamoebiens dans quelques sols climatiques,” Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., Ser. A (Paris) 96, 1–183 (1976).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    G. M. Dlussky, Ants of the Genus Formica (Nauka, Moscow, 1967) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    G. M. Dlussky, “Nester von Lasius flavus (Hymenoptera, Formicidae),” Pedobiologia 21, 81–99 (1981).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    T. N. Efremova, “Nests of Turf Ant As a Habitat of Soil Microflora under Arid Conditions,” in Biological Foundations for Exploitation of Useful Insects (IEMEZh AN SSSR, Moscow, 1988), pp. 54–55.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    W. Foissner, “Soil Protozoa: Fundamental Problems, Ecological Significance, Adaptations in Ciliates and Testaceans, Bioindicators, and Guide to the Literature,” Progr. Protistol. 2, 69–112 (1987).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    W. Foisssner, “Soil Protozoa as Bioindicators: Pros and Cons, Methods, Diversity, Representative Examples,” Agric. Ecosyst. Environ. 74, 95–112 (1999).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    W. Foissner and G. A. Korganova, “The Centropyxis aerophila Complex (Protozoa, Testacea),” Acta Protozool. 39, 257–273 (2000).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    L. Galle, “Thermoregulation in the Nest of Formica pratensis Retz. (Hymenoptera, Formicidae),” Acta Boil. Szeged 19, 139–142 (1973).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Yu. G. Gel’tser and G. A. Korganova, “Soil Rhizopods (Protozoa, Testacida) and Their Significance as Indicators,” in Problems and Methods of Biological Diagnostics and Indication of Soils (Nauka, Moscow, 1976), pp. 116–140.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    M. I. Gerasimova, S. V. Gubin, and S. A. Shoba, Micromorphologiy of Soils in Natural Zones of the Soviet Union (Pushchino, 1992) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    V. I. Golubev and I. P. Bab’eva, “Fungi of the Genus Debariomices Klock in Nests of Ants Formica rufa L.,” Ekologiya, No. 1, 78–81 (1972).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    T. A. Iudina, Candidate’s Dissertation in Biology (St. Petersburg State Univ., 1998).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    G. A. Korganova, “Testate Amoebae (Testacida) in Forest Soils of Moscow Oblast,” in Soils Invertebrates of Moscow Oblast (Nauka, Moscow, 1982), pp. 25–40 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    G. A. Korganova, “Soil Fauna in Pine Forests of Poland: Testate Amoebae,” Fragm. Faun. Warszawa 36(3), 38–50 (1993).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    G. A. Korganova, “Testate Amoebae (Protozoa) in Insular Ecosystems,” in Animal Population of Islands in Southwestern Oceania, Ed. by V. E. Sokolov (Nauka, Moscow, 1994), pp. 184–209 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    G. A. Korganova, Doctoral Dissertation in Biology (IPEE RAN, Moscow, 1997).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    G. A. Korganova, “Organization of Soil Communities of Testate Amoebae (Protozoa, Testacea),” Zool. Zh. 78(12), 1396–1406 (1999).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    G. A. Korganova, “Criteria of Species in Soil Testate Amoebae (Protozoa, Testacea),” in Proceedings of III (XIII) All-Russia Conference on Soil Zoology: Problems in Soil Zoology (Ioshkar Ola, 2002), pp. 93–94.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    G. A. Korganova and A. A. Rakhleeva, “Testate Amoebae (Testacea) in Soils of the Meshchera Lowland,” Zool. Zh. 76(3), 261–268 (1997).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    V. E. Likhovidov, “The Effect of Ants on Soil Algae and Protozoa,” in Proceedings of VI All-Union Symposium on Ants and Forest Protection (Tartu, 1979), pp. 68–71.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    V. E. Likhovidov and I. K. Bulik, “Some Data on the Relationship between Soil Protozoa and Anthills in Forests of Southeastern Ukraine,” in Problems in Soil Zoology (Nauka, Moscow, 1972), pp. 94–95 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zh. F. Pivovarova, “Specific Features of Distribution of Algae in Formica polyctena Anthills in Forest-Steppe Landscapes,” in Proceedings of VIII All-Union Myrmecological Symposium on Ants and Forest Protection (Novosibirsk, 1979), pp. 132–134.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    A. D. Pokarzhevskij, “The Distribution and Accumulation of Nutrients in Nests of Ants Formica polyctena (Hymenoptera, Formicidae),” Pedobiologia 21, 117–124 (1981).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    A. A. Rakhleeva and G. A. Korganova, “On the Assessment of Abundance and Species Diversity of Testate Amoebae (Rhizopoda, Testacea) in Taiga Soils,” Zool. Zh. 84(12), 1427–1436 (2005).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Zh. F. Reznikova and E. V. Sleptsova, “Biotopic and Seasonal Variations in the Fauna of Springtails (Collembola) in Anthills of Formica rufa,” Usp. Sovrem. Biol. 123(3), 310–320 (2003).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    V. V. Sevast’yanov, “Acarofauna of Common Red Ants Formica rufa L.,” in Oribatids (Oribatei) and Their Role in Soil-Forming Processes (Vilnius, 1970), pp. 143–147 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    E. V. Sleptsova, “Biotopic and Geographic Variations in the Fauna of Collembolans in Nests of Common Red Ants,” in Proceedings of XII All-Russian Myrmecological Symposium on Ants and Forest Protection (Novosibirsk, 2005), pp. 117–123.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    E. V. Sleptsova and Zh. I. Reznikova, “Formation of Springtail Communities (Collembola) during Colonization of Anthills,” Zool. Zh. 85(5), 563–573 (2006).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    S. K. Stebaeva, “Seasonal Dynamics of Collembolan Abundance in Nests of Small Forest Ants (Formica polyctena),” in Proceedings of VI All-Union Symposium on Ants and Forest Protection (Tartu, 1979), pp. 78–80.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    S. K. Stebaeva, “Population Dynamics of Springtails (Collembola, Hexapoda) in Nests of Ants of the Subgenus Formica s. str. in Northeastern Kazakhstan,” in Proceedings of XII All-Union Myrmecological Symposium (Novosibirsk, 2005), pp. 133–138.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    S. K. Stebaeva and L. G. Grishina, “Dynamics of Microarthropods (Collembola, Oribatei) in a Formica polyctena Nest in the Forest-Steppe of Western Siberia,” Zool. Zh. 62(6), 850–860 (1983).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    S. K. Stebaeva, T. I. Sukhova, and D. Yu. Shcherbakov, “Responses to a Temperature Gradient in Springtails (Collembola) of Different Life Forms,” Zool. Zh. 56(7), 1021–1029 (1977).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    G. Stöcker and A. Bergmann, “Ein Model der Dominanzstruktur und seine Anwendung.1. Modellbildung, Modellrealisierung, Dominanzklassen,” Arch. Naturschutz Landsschaftsforschung 17(1), 1–26 (1977).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    R. Thomas, “Le genre Plagiopyxis Penard,” Hydrobiologia 10, 198–214 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    A. A. Zakharov, “Ecology of Ants,” in Itogi Nauki Tekhn. (VINITI, Moscow, 1980), vol. 7, pp. 132–205.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    A. A. Zakharov, Community Organization in Ants (Nauka, Moscow, 1991) [in Russian].Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    A. A. Zakharov, E. F. Ivanitskaya, and A. E. Maksimova, “Accumulation of Chemical Elements in Nests of Common Red Ants,” Pedobiologia 21, 36–45 (1981).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. A. Korganova
    • 1
  • A. A. Rakhleeva
    • 2
  1. 1.Severtsov Institute of Ecology and EvolutionRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Faculty of Soil ScienceMoscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations