New approach to the solution of the classical sine-Gordon equation and its generalizations
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We obtain new exact solutions U(x, y, z, t) of the three-dimensional sine-Gordon equation. The three-dimensional solutions depend on an arbitrary function F(α) whose argument is a function α(x, y, z, t). The ansatz α is found from an equation linear in (x, y, z, t) whose coefficients are arbitrary functions of α that should satisfy a system of algebraic equations. By this method, we solve the classical and a generalized sine-Gordon equation; the latter additionally contains first derivatives with respect to (x, y, z, t). We separately consider an equation that contains only the first derivative with respect to time. We present approaches to the solution of the sine-Gordon equation with variable amplitude. The considered methods for solving the sine-Gordon equation admit a natural generalization to the case of integration of the same types of equations in a space of arbitrarily many dimensions.
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