Space System for Detecting Hazardous Celestial Bodies Approaching Earth from the Daytime Sky (SODA)
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The concept of the System for the Observation of Daytime Asteroids (SODA system) has been developed, the purpose of which is to detect at least 95% of hazardous celestial bodies larger than 10 m in size that fly towards Earth from the Sun side. Spacecraft, equipped with the optimum version, which has three wide-angle optical telescopes of small aperture (20–30 cm) will be placed in a halo orbit around the L1 libration point of the Sun–Earth system. This will provide a warning on the hazardous object, approaching from the Sun side, and will allow one to determine the orbit and the point of body entering Earth atmosphere to a sufficient accuracy, at least a few hours before the body collides with Earth. The requirements to the system are considered, the results of a preliminary design of the set of instruments have been described, the areas of visibility are calculated, and the versions of data transmission modes have been proposed. It has been shown that, in cooperation with other (particularly ground-based) projects aimed to observing objects flying from the night sky side, it is possible to detect in advance all hazardous bodies in the near-Earth space larger than 10 m in size that approach Earth from almost any direction.
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