Concentration of ions in the topside ionosphere as measured onboard the DEMETER satellite: Morphology and dependence on solar and geomagnetic activity
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Variations in concentration of ions H+, He+, and O+ are studied at a height of about 700 km using the data of continuous observations onboard the DEMETER satellite at the decline and in the minimum of solar activity from 2004 to 2008. Latitudinal distributions, seasonal behavior, and irregular variations in ion concentrations and their dependence on solar and geomagnetic activity are considered. Within this altitude range, for the first time an analysis is performed of the dataset of many-year continuous observations in both hemispheres from the equatorial to subauroral latitudes. This made it possible to describe the seasonal and irregular variations of the concentrations of main ion species with better time and spatial resolution than in the available empirical models. The dependence of concentrations of three types of ions on solar and geomagnetic activity is studied at time scales from several days to several years, and it is shown that the anti-phase change in concentrations of O+ and light ions known from publications is partly a result of mutual dependence of solar and geomagnetic activity and is observed only at time scales beginning from several months. At time scales from several days to several weeks, variations in the concentration of O+ and light ions are governed mainly by solar and geomagnetic activity, respectively.
KeywordsSolar Activity Geomagnetic Activity Cosmic Research Solar Activity Cycle Topside Ionosphere
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