Biophysics

, 56:546 | Cite as

An epidemiological analysis of monitoring of the immune status of chernobyl nuclear accident liquidators for early detection of risk groups and diagnosis of cancer diseases. Communication 1

  • I. V. Oradovskaya
  • Yu. G. Pashchenkova
  • V. V. Feoktistov
  • M. F. Nikonova
  • G. Kh. Vikulov
  • N. V. Bozheskaya
  • N. N. Smirnova
Radiobiology and Radioecology
  • 29 Downloads

Abstract

Ionizing radiation is one of the major risk factors for cancer diseases. The question on the rate of malignant neoplasms (MNs) and their early detection in Chernobyl nuclear accident (ChNA) liquidators is still open. In this work, the results of a long-term immunological monitoring of the ChNA liquidators who live in the northwestern region of Russia have been analyzed with an attempt to detect the predictors of cancer in this population cohort. The rate of newly detected MN cases in the cohort of followup ChNA liquidators monitored in 1990–2009 was 8.856% (89 cases per 1005 persons), which is somewhat higher as compared with the average rate for the total population. As for the rate of individual MN types, lung, gastric, and prostate cancers were prevalent, which matches the worldwide trend in MN abundance. It was shown that 1-3 years before the MN diagnosis, liquidators displayed detectable changes in their immune status, including a decrease in the percentages of CD3+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes, and, to a lesser degree, B lymphocytes; a decrease in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio; increase in the relative and absolute contents of CD16+ lymphocytes; increase in the absolute CD8+ T lymphocyte counts; prevalence of CD3+16/56+ (NK-T) cells over CD3-16/56+ (NK) cells; and increase in the activity of phagocytes. The patients who displayed one or several of the listed characteristics should be ascribed to the MN risk group to be assessed for cancer markers, be more comprehensively examined, and be the subjects of dynamic observation.

Keywords

immunological monitoring ionizing radiation Chernobyl nuclear accident malignant neoplasms pretumor diseases antitumor immunity special risk units 

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. V. Oradovskaya
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yu. G. Pashchenkova
    • 1
    • 2
  • V. V. Feoktistov
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. F. Nikonova
    • 1
    • 2
  • G. Kh. Vikulov
    • 1
    • 2
  • N. V. Bozheskaya
    • 1
    • 2
  • N. N. Smirnova
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of ImmunologyFederal Medical Biology AgencyMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Central Medical Sanitary Station no. 38Sosnovyi Bor, Leningrad oblastRussia

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