Biophysics

, Volume 55, Issue 1, pp 128–141 | Cite as

Tissue reactions under chronic exposure to ionizing radiation

Radiobiology and Radioecology
  • 55 Downloads

Abstract

Reviewed are radiobiological data on the emergence of tissue reactions that may determine the course and outcome of human chronic irradiation. The main mechanisms of the reaction of hemopoietic, immune, reproductive, endocrine, respiratory systems and skin to long-term and fractionated exposure to ionizing radiation are considered. The problem of developing a new approach to threshold dose estimation for chronic exposure effects is discussed.

Key words

chronic exposure hemopoiesis immunity endocrine system gonads skin lungs 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    ICRP Publication 103. Annals of the ICRP. Oxford: Elsevier, 2007.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Francois S., Bensidhoum M., Mouseddine M., et al., Stem Cells. 2006. V. 24. P. 1020–1029.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chapel A., Bertho J.M., Bensidhoum M., et al., J. Gene Med. 2003. V. 12. P. 1028–1038.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Semont A., Francois S., Mouseddine M., et al., Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 2006. V. 585. P. 19–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    ICRP Publications 41, 42. Moscow: Energoatomizdat, 1987 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Michalowski A., Radiat. Environ. Biophys. 1981. V. 19. No. 3. P. 157–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Withers H.R., Taylor J.M., and Maciejewski B., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 1988. V. 14. P. 751–759.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lyman J.T., Radiat. Res. 1985. Suppl 8. P. 13–19.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kutcher G.J. and Burman C., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 1989. V. 16. P. 1623–1630.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kallman P., Agren A., and Brahme A., Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 1992. V. 62. No. 2. P. 249–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Denham J.W., Hauer-Jensen M., and Peters L.J., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 2001. V. 50. No. 5. P. 1105–1106.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kadhim M.A., Moore S.R., and Goodwin E.H., Mutat. Res. 2004. V. 568. P. 21–32.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Prise K.M., Occup. Med. 2006. V. 56. P. 156–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Little D.B., Radiats. Biol. Radioekol. 2007. V. 47. No. 3. P. 262–272.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fliedner T.M., Nothdurft W., Tibken B., et al., Adv. Space Res. 1994. V. 14. No. 10. P. 541–554.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Muksinova K.N., Mushkacheva G.S. Cellular and Molecular Bases of Rearrangement of Hemopoiesis under Long-term Radiation Exposure. Moscow: Energoatomizdat, 1990 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Novoselova E.G. and Safonova M.V., Radiats. Biol. Radioekol. 1994. V. 34. No. 3. P. 407–413.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sergeevich L.A. and Karnaukhova N.A., Radiats. Biol. Radioekol. 2002. V. 42. No. 1. P. 48–53.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Kolomiitseva I.K., Kulagina T.P., Markevich L.N., et al., Biofizika. 2002. V. 47. No. 6. P. 1106–1115.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pelevina I.I., Aleshchenko A.V., Afanas’ev G.G., et al., Radiats. Biol. Radioekol. 2000. V. 40. No. 5. P. 467–477.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Morgan W.F., Radiat. Res. 2003. V. 159. No. 5. P. 581–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Koterov A.N. and Nikol’skii A.V., Radiats. Biol. Radioekol. 1999. V. 39. No. 6. P. 648–662.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Meerson F.Z. and Malyshev I.Yu., Phenomenon of Structure Stabilization and Heart Protection. Moscow: Nauka, 1993 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ikushima T., Aritomi H., and Morisita J., Mutat. Res. 1996. V. 358. P.193–198.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ahmed K.M., Li J.J., Free Radical Biol. Med. 2008. V. 44. P. 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Smirnova O.A. and Yonezawa M., Health Physics. 2004. V. 87. No. 4. P. 366–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nogami M., Huang J.T., James S.J., et al., Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 1993. V. 63. No. 6. P. 775–783.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kojima S., Ischida Y., Tarahashi M., and Yamaoka R., Radiat. Res. 2002. V. 157. No. 3. P. 275–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Baraboi V.A. and Oleinik S.A., Radiats. Biol. Radioekol. 1999. V. 39. No. 4. P. 438–443.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Akleyev A.V., Aleschenko A.V., Gotlib V.J., et al., Jpn. J. Health Phys. 2004. V. 39. No. 4. P. 375–381.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Nikanorova E.A., Ivanov K.Yu., Khaimovich T.I., et al., Radiats. Biol. Radioekol. 2002. V. 42. No. 6. P. 759–764.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Osipov A.N., Elakov A.L., Puchkov P.V., et al., Genetika. 2002. V. 38. No. 10. P. 1345–1350.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gus’kova A.K., Baisogolov G.D., Human Radiation Disease. Moscow: Meditsina, 1971 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Medicobiological and Ecological Consequences of the Radioactive Pollution of Techa River, Ed. by A.V. Akleev, M.F. Kiselev. Moscow: Med-bioekstrem, 2000 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Guskova A.K., Gusev I.A., and Okladnikova N.D., Br. J. Radiol. 2002. Suppl. 26. P. 19–23.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Okladnikova N.D., Radiation Medicine. V. 2. Moscow: IzdAT, 2001. P. 253–274 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Seed T.M., Fritz T.E., Tolle D.V., and Jackson W.E., Adv. Space Res. 2002. V. 30. No. 4. P. 945–955.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Fliedner T.M., Graessly D., Paulsen C., and Reimers K., Cancer Biother. Radiopharm. 2002. V. 17. No. 4. P. 405–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ghiassi-Neijad M., Mortazavi S.M.J., Kameron J.R., et al., Health Physics. 2002. V. 82. No. 2. P. 87–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Okladnikova N.D., Pesternikova V.S., and Azizova T.V., Br. J. Radiol. 2002. Suppl. 26. P. 26–31.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pesternikova V.S. and Okladnikova N.D., Vopr. Radiats. Med. 2003. No. 3. P. 60–66.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Pesternikova V.S. and Okladnikova N.D., Vopr. Radiats. Bezopasn. 2004. No. 4. P. 41–45.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Akleyev A.V., Veremeyeva G.A., Silkina L.A., and Vozilova A.V., Centr. Eur. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 1999. V. 5. No. 2. P. 113–129.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Akleyev A.V. and Varfolomeeva T.A., Radiats. Biol. Radioekol. 2007. V. 47. No. 3. P. 307–321.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Grigor’ev Yu.G., Popov V.I., Shifirkin A.V., and Antipenko D.B., Somatic Effects of Chronic Gamma-Irradiation. Moscow: Energoatomizdat, 1986 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Seed T.M., Adv. Space Res. 1996. V. 18. No. 1/2. P. 65–70.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Shvedov V.L. and Akleyev A.V., Radiobiolofy of Strontium-90. Chelyabinsk: Megas, 2001 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Malyshev V.A., Pelevina I.I., Afanas’ev G.G., et al., Radiats. Biol. Radioekol. 1993. V. 33. No. 1. P. 470–478.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Safwat A., Radiat. Res. 2000. V. 153. No.5. P. 599–604.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Pandey R., Shankar B.S., Sharma D., and Sainis K.B., Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2005. V. 81. No. 11. P. 801–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kirillova E.N., Muksinova K.N., and Skukovskaya T.L., Kosm. Biol. Aviakosm. Med. 1988. No. 2. P. 62–65.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Tuschl H., Steger F., and Kovac R., Health Physics. 1995. V. 68. No. 1. P. 59–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Yarilin A.A., Sequelae of the Chernobyl Catastrophe: human Health, Ed.by E.B. Burlakova. Moscow, 1996. P. 68–95 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Chang W.P., Hwang J.S., Hung M.C., et al., Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 1999. V. 75. No. 10. P. 1231–1239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Hicks A.M., Willingham M.C., Du W., et al., Cancer Immunity. V. 6. P. 11–20.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Akleyev A.V. and Kosenko M.M., Immunologiya. 1991. No. 3. P. 4–7.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Godekmerdan A., Ozden M., Aear A., et al., Arch. Med. Res. 2004. V. 35. P. 324–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Semenkov V.F., Kognovitskaya A.I., Artem’eva O.V., et al., Byull. Eksp. Biol. Med. 1997. V. 124. No. 11. P. 556–558.Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Asfandiyarova N.S., Romadin A.E., Kolcheva N.E., et al., Terap. Arkh. 1998. No. 1. D. 55–59.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kirillova E.N., Radiobiologiya. 1990. V. 30. No. 2. P. 175–178.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Tuschl H., Kovac R., and Wottawa A., Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 1990. V. 58. No. 4. P. 651–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Rees G.S., Daniel C.P., Morris S.D., et al., Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2004. V. 80. No. 7. P. 493–498.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Courtade M., Caratero A., Jozan S., et al., Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2001. V. 77. No. 5. P. 587–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Wilkins R.C., Kutzner B.C., Truong M., and Mclean J.R.N., Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 2002. V. 78. No. 8. P. 681–688.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Xu Y., Greenstock C.L., Trivedi A., and Mitchel R.E., Radiat. Environ. Biophys. 1996. V. 35. No. 2. P. 89–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Gelashvili K.D., Osmanova V.R., Khazarbegishvili N.S., et al., Gigiena Sanitar. 1990. No. 8. P. 57–59.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Vekhovanets E.V., Chernyshov V.P., Sluvkin I.I., et al., Radiat. Res. 2000. V. 153. No. 3. P. 760–772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sergeevich L.A. and Karnaukhova N.A., Radiats. Biol. Radioekol. 2002. V. 42. No. 1. P. 48–53.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kul’bakh O.S. and Petrova T.E., Morfologiya. 2000. No. 1. P. 46–50.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Ghiassi-nejad M., Mjrtavazi S.M.J., Cameron J.R., et al., Health Physics. 2002. V. 82. No. 1. P. 87–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Murzina L.D. and Muksinova K.N., Radiobiologiya. 1982. V. 22. No. 3. P. 365–368.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Smirnova D.E., Kirillova E.N., and Muksinova K.N., Radiobiologiya. 1990. V. 30. No. 1. P. 129–132.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kirillova E.N., Radiobiologiya. 1985. V. 25. No. 6. P. 792–795.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kirillova E.N., Revina V.S., and Sokolova S.I., Radiobiologiya. 1991. V. 31. No. 3. P. 357–360.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Konoplya E.F., Vereshchako E.E., Khodosovskaya A.M., et al., Radiats. Biol. Radioekol. 2003. V. 43. No. 2. P. 221–222.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    ICRP Publication 83. Annals of the ICRP. Oxford: Pergamon, 1999. 144 p.Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kirilov-Postnikov S.A., Aivazyan A.V., et al., Med. Radiol. 1977. No. 7. P. 45–48.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Biriouokov A., Meurer M., Peter R.U., et al., Arch. Androl. 1993. V. 30. No. 2. P. 99–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Evdokimov V.V., Erasova V.I., Demin A.I., et al., Med. Truda Prom. Ekol. 1993. No. 3–4. P. 25–28.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Malysheva Z.V., Sokolova I.I., and Tyutyunnik I.F., Med. Truda Prom. Ekol. 1998. No. 9. P. 18–22.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Lyaginskaya A.M., Radiation Medicine, V. 1. Moscow: IzdAT, 2004. P. 352–421 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Piroth M.D., Hensley F., Wannenmacher M., and Zierhut D.H., Strahlenther. Onkol. 2003. V. 179. No. 11. P. 754–759.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Baklanov P.S. and Okladnikova N.D., Byull. Radiats. Med. 1977. No. 3. P. 43–48.Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Izhevskii P.V., Avetisov E.M., and Kurbatov A.V., Med. Radiol. Radiats. Bezopasn. 1998. No. 2. P. 23–27.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Verbenko A.A., Ivanov A.E., Chusova V.I., and Malysheva M.S., Byull. Radiats. Med. 1963. No. 3a. P. 122–129.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ovcharenko E.P., Byull. Radiats. Med. 1981. No. 1. P. 53–63.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Krauz V.S., Byull. Radiats. Med. 1961. No. 1a. P. 138–143.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Baloga V.I., Khoosha V.I., Evdin A.N., et al., National Report of the Ukraine. 20 Years of the Chernobyl Catastrophe. Kiev: Attika, 2006. P. 83–85 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Irgens L.M., Lie R.T., Ulstein M., et al., Biomed. Pharmacother. 1991. V. 45. No. 6. P. 233–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Pinon-Lataillade G., Viguier-Martiniz M.C., and Maas J., Acta Endocrinol. 1985. V. 109. No. 4. P. 558–562.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Pineau C., Velez de la Calle J.F., Pinon-Lataillade G., and Jegou B., Endocrinology. 1989. V. 124. No. 6. P. 2720–2728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mamina V.P., Radiats. Biol. Radioekol. 2005. V. 45. No. 1. P. 91–95.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Varga S.V., Demchenko V.P., Chaikovskaya L.V., and Reznikov A.E., Radiats. Biol. Radioekol. 1994. V. 34. No. 1. P. 105–110.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Nefedov I.Yu., Nefedova I.Yu., and Palyga E.F., Radiats. Biol. Radioekol. 2000. V. 40. No. 4. P. 358–372.Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Rackham B.D. and Woodhead D.S., Int. J. Radiat. Biol. Relat. Stud. Phys. Chem. Med. 1984. V. 45. No. 6. P. 645–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Nikitin A.I., Morfologiya. 1998. No. 6. P. 7–16.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Pinon-Lataillade G., Velez de la Calle J.F., Viguier-Martiniz M.C., et al., Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 1988. V. 58. No. 1. P. 51–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Dedov V.I. and Norets T.A., Med. Radiol. 1981. No. 1. P. 26–29.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Alesina M.Yu., Int. J. Radiat. Med. 1999. No. 2. P. 92–99.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Popov E.E., Kuts F.I., and Belousov O.L., Radiats. Biol. Radioekol. 2002. V. 42. No. 1. P. 86–91.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Plakhuta-Plakutina E.N., Kosm. Biol. Aviakosm. Med. 1978. V. 12. No. 6. P. 50–54.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Konoplya E.F., Vereshchako E.E., Khodosovskaya A.M., et al., Radiats. Biol. Radioekol. 2002. V. 42. No. 2. P. 136–140.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Vereshchako E.E., Khodosovskaya A.M., and Konoplya E.F., Radiats. Biol. Radioekol. 2003. V. 43. No. 1. P. 71–74.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Diamond F.B.J. and Bercu B.B., J. Endocrinol. Invest. 2001. V. 24. No. 9. P. 648–658.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Heikens J., Michiels E.M., Behrendt H., et al., Eur. J. Cancer. 1998. V. 34. No. 10. P. 1592–1597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Agha A., Sherlok M., Brenan S., et al., J. Clinic. Endocrinol. Metabol. 2005. V. 90. No. 12. P. 6355–6360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Sclar C.A., J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. 2002. V. 15.Suppl. 2. P. 669–673.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Gleeson H.K., Darsy K., and Shalet S.M., Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2002. V. 16. No. 2. P. 335–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Toogood A.A., Growth Horm. Res. 2004. V. 14.Suppl. A. P. 118–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Schneider H.J., Rovere S., Gorneli G., et al., Eur. J. Endocrinol. 2006. V. 155. No. 4. P. 559–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Gleeson H.K. and Shalet S.M., Endocrine Related Cancer. 2004. V. 11. No. 4. P. 589–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Cohen L.E., Endocrinol. Metab. Clin. North Am. 2005. V. 34. No. 3. P. 769–789.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Brennan B.M.D. and Shalet S.M., Br. J. Haematol. 2002. V. 118. P. 58–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Darzy K.H. and Shalet S.M., Horm. Res. 2003. V. 59.Suppl. 1. P. 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Sclar C.A., Growth Genet. Horm. 2001. V. 17. P. 37–42.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Schmiegelow M., Lassen S., Poulsen H.S., et al., Clin. Endocrinol. 2000. V. 53. P. 191–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Cohen L.E., Curr. Opin. Pediatr. 2003. V. 15. No. 1. P. 3–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Livesey E.A., Hindmarsh P.C., Brook C.G.D., et al., Br. J. Cancer. 1990. V. 61. P. 622–625.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Jereczek-Fossa B.A., Alterio D., Jassem J., et al., Cancer Treat. Rev. 2004. V. 30. No. 4. P. 369–384.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Gleeson H.K. and Shalet S.M., Curr. Opin. Pediatr. 2001. V. 13. P. 346–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Starinskii V.V., Aleksandrova L.M., Sotnikova E.N., et al., Akusher/Ginekol. 1997. No. 4. P. 49–52.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Petrov N.M. and Petrov V.N., Med. Radiol. Radiats. Bezopasn. 1998. No. 4. P. 17–19.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Zhumadilov Zh.Sh., Abisheva G.N., Vaskovsky G.G., and Kusainov A.A., Astana Med. J. 2005. No. 3. P. 102–103.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Mushkacheva G.S., Rabinovivh E.I., Privalov V.A., et al., Med. Radiol. Radiats. Bezopasn. 2006. No. 2. P. 51–61.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Brougham M.F.H., Kelnar C.J.H., and Wallace W.H.B., Pediatric Reabilitation. 2002. V. 5. No. 4. P. 191–201.Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Lomat L., Galburt G., Quastel M.R., et al., Environ. Health Perspectives. 1997. V. 105.Suppl. 6. P. 1529–1532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Lyaginskaya A.M. and Osipov V.A., Gigiena Sanitar. 2005. No. 2. P. 27–32.Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Littley M.D., Shalet S.M., and Beardwell C.G., Clin. Endocrinol. 1989. V. 31. P. 363–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Constine L.S., Wool P.D., Cann D., et al., N. Engl. J. Med. 1993. V. 13. P. 346–351.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Schmigelow M., Lassen S., Poulsen H.S., et al., J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 2001. V. 86. P. 2446–2452.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Ogilvy-Stuary A.L., Clayton P.E., and Shalet S.M., J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 1994. V. 78. P. 1282–1286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Roth C., Schmidberger H., Schaper O., et al., Pediatric Res. 2000. V. 47. P. 586–591.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Rankova N.N., Chusova V.N., Shulyatikova A.Ya., and Titova L.A., Byull. Radiats. Med. 1966. No. 2. P. 74–82.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Inscip P.D., Eby N.L., Cookfair D., et al., Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prevention. 1994. No. 3. P. 37–45.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Kinsella T.J., Trivette G., Rowland J., and Sorace R., J. Clin. Oncol. 1989. V. 7. P. 718–724.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Sclar C.A., Pediatrician. 1991. V. 18. No. 1. P. 53–60.Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Wood G., Casey L., and Trotti A., Cancer Treat. Res. 2006. V. 128. P. 171–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Ayolla A. and Lee Y.J., Oncologist. 2006. No. 11. P. 1118–1120.Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Schmuth M., Sztankay A., Weinlich G., et al., Arch. Dermatol. 2001. V. 139. No. 8. P. 1019–1023.Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Okladnikova N.D., Kabasheva N.Ya., Shevkunov V.A., et al., Vopr. Radiats. Bezopasn. 2002. No. 2. P. 36–43.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Rezvani M., Br. J. Radiol. 2002. Suppl. 26. P. 226–232.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Dimitrijevic-Bussod M., Balsaretti-Maggi V.S., and Gabdois D.M., Cancer Res. 1999. V. 59. P. 4843–4847.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Turesson I., Bernefors R., Book M., et al., Acta Oncol. 2001. V. 40. No. 8. P. 941–951.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Tomey F., Papaleo B., Fantini S., et al., Am. J. Industrial. Med. 1996. V. 30. No. 1. P. 72–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Smith K.J., Skelton H.G., Tuur S., et al., Int. J. Dermatol. 1997. V. 36. No. 1. P. 779–782.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Liu W., Ding I., Chen K., et al., Radiat. Res. 2006. V. 165. No. 2. P. 181–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Martin M., Vozenin M.C., Gault N., et al., Oncogene. 1997. V. 15. No. 8. P. 981–989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Flanders K.C., Major CD., Arabshahi A., et al., Am. J. Pathol. 2003. V. 163. P. 2247–2257.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Goldberg Z., Schwietert C.W., Lehnert B., et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 2004. V. 58. No. 2. P. 567–574.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Wang X., Matsumoto H., Okaichi K., and Ohnishi T., Anticancer Res. 1996. V. 16. No. 4a. P. 1671–1674.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Ponten F., Lindman H., Bostrom A., et al., J. Nation. Cancer Inst. 2001. V. 93. No. 2. P. 128–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Pokrovskii Ya.V., Ryzhov A.I., and Tetenev F.F., Radiats. Biol. Radioekol. 2005. V. 45. No. 1. P. 86–90.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Scherthan H., Abend M., Muller K., et al., Radiat. Res. 2007. V. 167. P. 615–623.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Mattson K., Holsti L.R., Poppius H., et al., Acta Oncol. 1987. V. 26. No. 3. P. 193–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Inoue A., Kuniton H., Sekine I., et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 2001. V. 49. No. 3. P. 649–655.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Rothwell R.I., Kelly S.A., and Joslin C.A., Radiother. Oncol. 1985. V. 4. No. 1. P. 9–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Lingos T.I., Recht A., Vicini F., et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 1991. V. 21. No. 2. P. 355–360.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Nishioka A., Ogawa N., Hamada N., et al., Oncol. Rep. 1999. V. 6. No. 3. P. 513–517.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Taghian A.G., Assaad S.I., Niemierko A., et al., J. Nation. Cancer Inst. 2001. V. 93. No. 23. P. 1806–1811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Wennberg B., Gagliardi G., Sundbom L., et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 2002. V. 52. No. 5. P. 1196–1206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Kwa S.L., Lebesque J.V., Theuws J.C., et al., Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 1998. V. 42. No. 1. P. 1–9.Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Carruthers S.A. and Wallington M.M., Br. J. Cancer. 2004. V. 90. No. 11. P. 2080–2084.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Wall R.G. and Schnapp L.M., Respiratory Care. 2006. V. 51. No. 11. P. 1255–1260.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Dagle G.E. and Sanders C.L., Environ. Health Perspectives. 1984. V. 55. P. 129–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Coggle J.E., Lambert B.E., and Moores S.R., Environ. Health Perspectives. 1986. V. 70. P. 261–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Muggenburg B.A., Hahn F.F., Menache M.G., et al., Radiat. Res. 1999. V. 152.Suppl. 6. P. 23–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Hahn F.F., Muggenburg B.A., Snipes M.B., and Boecker B.B., Radiat. Res. 2001. V. 155. P. 95–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Fajardo L.F., Acta Oncol. 2005. V. 44. No. 1. P.13–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Movsas B., Raffin T.A., Epstein A.H., and Link C.J., Chest. 1997. V. 111. No. 4. P. 1061–1076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Morgan G.W. and Breit S.N., Int. J. Radiat. Biol. Phys. 1995. V. 31. No. 2. P. 361–369.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Crestani B., Kambouchner M., Soler P., et al., Eur. Respir. J. 1995. V. 8. P. 318–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    O’Brien-Ladner A., Nelson M.E., Kimler B.F., and Wesselius L.J., Radiat. Res. 1993. V. 136. No. 1. P. 37–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Chen Y., Rubin P., Williams J., et al., Int. J. Radiat. Biol. Phys. 2001. V. 49. No. 3. P. 641–648.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Arpin D., Perol D., Blay J.Y., et al., J. Clin. Oncol. 2005. V. 23. P. 8748–8756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Tada T., Minakuchi K., Matsui K., et al., Radiat. Med. 2000. V. 18. No. 1. P. 59–61.Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Koshurnikova N.A., Aristov V.P., Lemberg V.K., et al., Health Physics. 1972. V. 22. P. 753–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Brooks F.L., Guilmette R.A., Hanh F.F., et al., Radiat. Res. 1992. V. 130. P. 79–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    O’sullivan B. and Levin W., Semin. Radiat. Oncol. 2003. V. 13. No. 3. P. 274–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Rosiello R.A. and Merrill W.W., Clin. Chest. Med. 1990. V. 11. No. 1. P. 65–71.Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Abratt R.P. and Morgan G.W., Lung Cancer. 2002. V. 35. No. 2. P. 103–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Muller G., Kirikuta I.C., Steiss J., and Bohndorf W., Strahlenther. Onkol. 1994. V. 170. No. 7. P. 400–407.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Gus’kova A.K., Probl. Tuberkul. Bolez. Legkikh. 2004. No. 3. P. 41–43.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Okladnikova N.D., Kudryavtseva T.I., and Belyaeva Z.D., Vopr. Radiats. Bezopasn. 2000. No. 1. P. 42–49.Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Newman L.S., Mroz M.M., and Ruttenber J., Radiat. Res. 2005. V. 164. P. 121–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Muggenburg B. A., Wolff R.K., Mauderly J.L., et al., Radiat. Res. 1988. V. 115. No. 2. P. 314–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Okladnikova N.D., Plutonium. Radiation Safety. Moscow: IzdAT, 2005. P. 344–366 [in Russian].Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Zhang K. and Phan S.H., Biol. Signals. 1996. V. 5. No. 4. P. 232–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Burger A., Loffler Y., Bamberg M., and Rodemann H.P., Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 1998. V. 73. No. 4. P. 401–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Hill R.P., Br. J. Radiol. 2005. Suppl. 27. P. 75–81.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Rubin P., Johnston C.L., and Williams J.P. // Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 1995. V. 33. P. 99–109.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Bentzen S.M., Nat. Rev. Cancer. 2006. V. 6. No. 9. P. 702–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Brush J., Lipnick S.L., Phillips T., et al., Semin. Radiat. Oncol. 2007. V. 17. No. 2. P. 121–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Urals Research Center for Radiation MedicineChelyabinskRussia

Personalised recommendations