Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 84, Issue 5, pp 491–508 | Cite as

Regulation of Chlorophyll Biogenesis by Phytochrome A

  • V. A. SineshchekovEmail author
  • O. B. BelyaevaEmail author


The photosynthetic apparatus accomplishes two major functions in plants — solar energy conversion and protection of the plant from photodestruction. Its highly orchestrated formation includes coordinated biosynthesis of chlorophyll (Chl) and of its binding to matrix proteins. Light plays here the central role driving both metabolic and regulatory processes. The regulation is achieved via operation of sophisticated photoreceptor machinery with the phytochrome system as its main component. This review concentrates on Chl a biosynthesis and the role of phytochrome A (phyA) in this process. The mechanism of action of phyA and the specificity of its state in the plant has been described, in particular, the existence of two native types with different modes of action. This review touches upon the dependence of the effects of phyA on tissues and organs of the plant and its species, genetic modifications, and hormonal status.


(proto)chlorophyll(ide) biosynthesis photosynthesis photomorphogenesis regulation photoreceptors phytochrome A hormones 



δ-aminolevulinic acid


ALA dehydratase








chlorophyll synthase


endogenous regulation signals




FHY3 and FHL, partner proteins of phytochrome A (far-red elongated hypocotyl 1 и




far red light


continuous FR


pulsed FR

Glu TR

Glu tRNA reductase


high irradiance responses


jasmonic acid


low fluorescence responses


Proto IX MME cyclase




Mg-Proto IX methyltransferase

Mg-Proto IX

Mg-protoporphyrin IX

Mg-Proto IX MME

Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester


N-terminal extension








phytochrome A(B,C)

phyA′ and phyA″

native pools of phyA


phytochrome-interacting factors


prolamellar bodies


protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase A(B,C)

Proto IX

protoporphyrin IX

Pr and Pfr

phytochrome forms absorbing red and far-red light respectively


photosystem I(II)

R light

red light


retrograde signal


very low fluorescence responses


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We are grateful to our teacher Prof. F. F. Litvin for his constant interest in our research and support and to Profs. P. Galland, T. Lamparter, and M. Terry for their critical reading of the manuscript and valuable comments.


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© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Biological FacultyLomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

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