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Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 83, Issue 9, pp 1009–1017 | Cite as

Changes in Retinal Glial Cells with Age and during Development of Age-Related Macular Degeneration

  • D. V. Telegina
  • O. S. Kozhevnikova
  • N. G. KolosovaEmail author
Review

Abstract

Age is the major risk factor in the age-related macular degeneration (AMD) which is a complex multifactor neurodegenerative disease of the retina and the main cause of irreversible vision loss in people over 60 years old. The major role in AMD pathogenesis belongs to structure-functional changes in the retinal pigment epithelium cells, while the onset and progression of AMD are commonly believed to be caused by the immune system dysfunctions. The role of retinal glial cells (Muller cells, astrocytes, and microglia) in AMD pathogenesis is studied much less. These cells maintain neurons and retinal vessels through the synthesis of neurotrophic and angiogenic factors, as well as perform supporting, separating, trophic, secretory, and immune functions. It is known that retinal glia experiences morphological and functional changes with age. Age-related impairments in the functional activity of glial cells are closely related to the changes in the expression of trophic factors that affect the status of all cell types in the retina. In this review, we summarized available literature data on the role of retinal macro- and microglia and on the contribution of these cells to AMD pathogenesis.

Keywords

aging retina age-related macular degeneration astrocytes Muller cells microglia 

Abbreviations

AMD

age-related macular degeneration

CX3CR1

C-X3-C-motif of chemokine receptor 1

GFAP

glial fibrillar acidic protein

IL

interleukin

RPE

retinal pigment epithelium

TNF

tumor necrosis factor

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. V. Telegina
    • 1
  • O. S. Kozhevnikova
    • 1
  • N. G. Kolosova
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Institute of Cytology and GeneticsSiberian Branch of the Russian Academy of SciencesNovosibirskRussia

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