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Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 81, Issue 11, pp 1358–1370 | Cite as

The role of cytokines in the development of atherosclerosis

  • A. R. Fatkhullina
  • I. O. Peshkova
  • E. K. KoltsovaEmail author
Review

Abstract

Atherosclerosis contributes to the development of many cardiovascular diseases, which remain the leading cause of death in developed countries. Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of large and medium-sized arteries. It is caused by dyslipidemia and mediated by both innate and adaptive immune responses. Inflammation is a key factor at all stages of atherosclerosis progression. Cells involved in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis were shown to be activated by soluble factors, cytokines, that strongly influence the disease development. Pro-inflammatory cytokines accelerate atherosclerosis progression, while anti-inflammatory cytokines ameliorate the disease. In this review, we discuss the latest findings on the role of cytokines in the development and progression of atherosclerosis.

Keywords

cardiovascular diseases atherosclerosis inflammation immune cells adhesion molecules cytokines 

Abbreviations

ApoE

apolipoprotein E

CVDs

cardiovascular diseases

G-CSF

granulocyte colony-stimulating factor

ICAM-1

intercellular adhesion molecule 1

IFN-γ

interferon-γ

IL

interleukin

ILCs

innate lymphoid cells

LDLs

lowdensity lipoproteins

MCP-1 (CCL2)

monocyte chemoattractant protein-1

NK cells

natural killer cells

oxLDLs

oxidized low-density lipoproteins

SMCs

smooth muscle cells

SOCS

suppressor of cytokine signaling

TGFβ

transforming growth factor beta

Th cells

T helper cells

TLR

toll-like receptor

TNF-α

tumor necrosis factor-alpha

Treg cells

regulatory T cells

VCAM-1

vascular adhesion molecule 1

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. R. Fatkhullina
    • 1
  • I. O. Peshkova
    • 1
  • E. K. Koltsova
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Fox Chase Cancer CenterPhiladelphiaUSA

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