Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 81, Issue 11, pp 1340–1349 | Cite as

Mechanisms of changes in immune response during bacterial coinfections of the respiratory tract

  • E. N. Sviriaeva
  • K. V. Korneev
  • M. S. Drutskaya
  • D. V. KuprashEmail author


Acute diseases of the respiratory tract are often caused by viral pathogens and accompanying secondary bacterial infections. It is known that the development of such bacterial complications is caused mainly by a decreased infiltration with immune system cells and by suppressed inflammation in the lungs. There are significant advances in understanding the mechanisms of secondary infections, although many details remain unclear. This review summarizes current knowledge of the molecular and cellular changes in the host organism that can influence the course of bacterial coinfections in the respiratory tract.


secondary bacterial coinfection influenza bacteria pneumonia macrophages Toll-like receptor 



chemokines, (C-X-C motif) ligand


intercellular adhesion molecule 1


indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase








transcription factor κB


peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma


respiratory syncytial virus


transforming growth factor beta


Toll-like receptors


tumor necrosis factor


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. N. Sviriaeva
    • 1
    • 2
  • K. V. Korneev
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. S. Drutskaya
    • 1
    • 2
  • D. V. Kuprash
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Engelhardt Institute of Molecular BiologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Faculty of BiologyLomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

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