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Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 81, Issue 11, pp 1309–1325 | Cite as

Tumor necrosis factor and lymphotoxin in regulation of intestinal inflammation

  • E. O. Gubernatorova
  • A. V. TumanovEmail author
Review

Abstract

Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are the major forms of inflammatory bowel disease. Cytokines of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family play an important role in the regulation of intestinal inflammation. In this review, we discuss the function of key cytokines of this family–TNF and lymphotoxin (LT)–in mucosal healing, IgA production, and in control of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), novel regulators of mucosal homeostasis in the gut. TNF plays a central role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). LT regulates group 3 of ILCs and IL-22 production and protects the epithelium against damage by chemicals and mucosal bacterial pathogens. In addition, we discuss major mouse models employed to study the mechanism of intestinal inflammation, their advantages and limitations, as well as application of TNF blockers in the therapy for IBD.

Keywords

tumor necrosis factor lymphotoxin intestinal inflammation inflammatory bowel disease mouse models 

Abbreviations

CD

Crohn’s disease

DCs

dendritic cells

DSS

dextran sulfate sodium

FDA

Food and Drug Administration of USA

FDC

follicular dendritic cells

GALT

gut-associated lymphoid tissue

IBD

inflammatory bowel disease

IFN

interferon

IL

interleukin

ILCs

innate lymphoid cells

LIGHT

homologous to lymphotoxin, exhibits inducible expression and competes with HSV glycoprotein D for binding to herpesvirus entry mediator, a receptor expressed on T-lymphocytes (another name: tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 14, TNFSF14)

LT

lymphotoxin

LTßR

membrane lymphotoxin receptor

MHC

major histocompatibility complex

MNP

mononuclear phagocytes

TACE

TNF-alpha converting enzyme

TNBS

2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid

TNF

tumor necrosis factor

TNFR

tumor necrosis factor receptor

UC

ulcerative colitis

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Molecular BiologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular GeneticsUniversity of Texas Health Science CenterSan AntonioUSA

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