Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 81, Issue 11, pp 1303–1308 | Cite as

Microbiota induces expression of tumor necrosis factor in postnatal mouse skin

  • D. V. Yuzhakova
  • M. V. Shirmanova
  • A. A. Bocharov
  • I. V. Astrakhantseva
  • E. A. Vasilenko
  • E. N. Gorshkova
  • M. S. Drutskaya
  • E. V. Zagaynova
  • S. A. Nedospasov
  • A. A. KruglovEmail author
Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Inflammation (Special Issue) Guest Editors S. A. Nedospasov and D. V. Kuprash


Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is a pleiotropic cytokine that regulates many important processes in the body. TNF production in a physiological state supports the structure of lymphoid organs and determines the development of lymphoid cells in hematopoiesis. However, chronic TNF overexpression leads to the development of various autoimmune disorders. Sites of TNF production in the naive state remain unclear due to the lack of in vivo models. In the present study, we used TNF-2A-Kat reporter mice to monitor the expression of TNF in different tissues. Comparative analysis of tissue fluorescence in TNF-2A-Kat reporter mice and wild type mice revealed constitutive expression of TNF in the skin of naive adult mice. In the skin of TNF-2A-Kat reporter mouse embryos, no statistically significant differences in the expression of TNF compared to wild type animals were observed. Furthermore, we established that local depletion of microflora with topical antibiotics leads to a reduction in the fluorescence signal. Thus, we assume that the skin microflora is responsible for the expression of TNF in the skin of mice.


tumor necrosis factor (TNF) TNF-2A-Kat reporter mice in vivo fluorescent imaging 



antimicrobial peptides






tumor necrosis factor


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. V. Yuzhakova
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. V. Shirmanova
    • 1
  • A. A. Bocharov
    • 3
  • I. V. Astrakhantseva
    • 2
  • E. A. Vasilenko
    • 2
  • E. N. Gorshkova
    • 2
  • M. S. Drutskaya
    • 3
  • E. V. Zagaynova
    • 1
  • S. A. Nedospasov
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • A. A. Kruglov
    • 2
    • 4
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Nizhny Novgorod State Medical AcademyNizhny NovgorodRussia
  2. 2.Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny NovgorodNizhny NovgorodRussia
  3. 3.Engelhardt Institute of Molecular BiologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  4. 4.Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical BiologyLomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  5. 5.Faculty of BiologyLomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

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