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Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 81, Issue 4, pp 348–363 | Cite as

Molecular mechanisms of autophagy in plants: Role of ATG8 proteins in formation and functioning of autophagosomes

  • V. V. Ryabovol
  • F. V. MinibayevaEmail author
Review

Abstract

Autophagy is an efficient way of degradation and removal of unwanted or damaged intracellular components in plant cells. It plays an important role in recycling of intracellular structures (during starvation, removal of cell components formed during plant development or damaged by various stress factors) and in programmed cell death. Morphologically, autophagy is characterized by the formation of double-membrane vesicles called autophagosomes, which are essential for the isolation and degradation of cytoplasmic components. Among autophagic (ATG) proteins, ATG8 from the ubiquitinlike protein family plays a key role in autophagosome formation. ATG8 is also involved in selective autophagy, fusion of autophagosome with the vacuole, and some other intracellular processes not associated with autophagy. In contrast to yeasts that carry a single ATG8 gene, plants have multigene ATG8 families. The reason for such great ATG8 diversity in plants remains unclear. It is also unknown whether all members of the ATG8 family are involved in the formation and functioning of autophagosomes. To answer these questions, the identification of the structure and the possible functions of plant proteins from ATG8 family is required. In this review, we analyze the structures of ATG8 proteins from plants and their homologs from yeast and animal cells, interactions of ATG8 proteins with functional ligands, and involvement of ATG8 proteins in different metabolic processes in eukaryotes.

Keywords

autophagy autophagosome ATG8 plants stress 

Abbreviations

AIM

ATG8-interacting motif

ATG genes and proteins

autophagic gene and proteins

ATI1/ATI2

ATG8-interacting proteins 1 and 2

CVT pathway

cytoplasm-to-vacuole targeting pathway

ER

endoplasmic reticulum

GABARAP

γ-aminobutyric acid A receptor-associated protein

GATE-16

Golgi-associated ATPase enhancer 16 kDa

PAS

pre-autophagosomal structure

PE

phosphatidylethanolamine

PI3P

phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate

PI3K 1

phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex 1

ROS

reactive oxygen species

TOR

target of rapamycin protein kinase

UB

ubiquitin

UBL

ubiquitin-like protein

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Kazan Institute of Biochemistry and BiophysicsRussian Academy of SciencesKazanRussia
  2. 2.Kazan (Volga Region) Federal UniversityKazanRussia

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