Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 80, Issue 11, pp 1492–1499 | Cite as

Primary structure of 28S rRNA gene confirms monophyly of free-living heterotrophic and phototrophic apicomplexans (Alveolata)

  • K. V. Mikhailov
  • D. V. Tikhonenkov
  • J. Janouškovec
  • A. Y. Diakin
  • M. V. Ofitserov
  • A. P. Mylnikov
  • V. V. Aleshin


Phylogenetic analysis of large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA or 28S rRNA) gene sequences from free-living predatory flagellates Colpodella angusta, Voromonas pontica, and Alphamonas edax (Apicomplexa) confirms their close relationship with chromerids Chromera velia and Vitrella brassicaformis, which possess a functional photosynthetic plastid. Together these organisms form a sister group to parasitic apicomplexans (coccidians and gregarines, or sporozoans sensu lato). This result agrees with the previous conclusion on monophyly of colpodellids and chromerids (chrompodellids) based on phylogenomic data. The revealed relationships demonstrate a complex pattern of acquisition, loss, or modification of plastids and transition to parasitism during alveolate evolution.


molecular phylogenetics ribosomal RNA genes apicomplexans Sporozoa heterotrophic flagellates plastids evolution of parasitism 



operational taxonomic units


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. V. Mikhailov
    • 1
  • D. V. Tikhonenkov
    • 2
    • 3
  • J. Janouškovec
    • 3
    • 4
  • A. Y. Diakin
    • 5
  • M. V. Ofitserov
    • 6
  • A. P. Mylnikov
    • 2
  • V. V. Aleshin
    • 1
  1. 1.Belozersky Institute of Physico-Chemical BiologyLomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland WatersRussian Academy of SciencesBorokRussia
  3. 3.Department of BotanyUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  4. 4.Canadian Institute for Advanced ResearchTorontoCanada
  5. 5.Faculty of Science, Department of Botany and ZoologyMasaryk UniversityBrnoCzech Republic
  6. 6.State Scientific Institute of Irrigation Fish Breeding, 142460Vorovskogo Settlement, Noginsk District, Moscow RegionRussia

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