Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 80, Issue 4, pp 455–462 | Cite as

Coxsackievirus B3 induces viral myocarditis by upregulating toll-like receptor 4 expression

  • Zhao Zhao
  • Tian-Zhi Cai
  • Yan Lu
  • Wen-Jun Liu
  • Man-Li Cheng
  • Yu-Qiang JiEmail author


In the present study, we investigated the potential pathogenesis of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3)-induced viral myocarditis and the promising protective effect of silencing RNA (small interfering RNA, siRNA). One hundred and twenty mice were included in the study, and 30 mice were intraperitoneally inoculated with CVB3 to establish an acute viral myocarditis model. The survival rate was observed for the CVB3-infected mouse model (MOD), and myocardial injury was examined by HE (hematoxylin and eosin) staining assay. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot assay were selected to detect the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) expression in myocardial tissues. The TLR4 gene was silenced for the MOD mice, and the effects of this treatment were observed. The results indicate that the expression of TLR4 mRNA and the protein significantly and persistently increased during the progression of CVB3-induced myocarditis. The activities of cardiac enzymes including CK, LDH, AST, and CK-MB were also enhanced in CVB3-induced myocardial tissues. Interestingly, when the TLR4 gene was silenced, the CVB3-induced TLR4 production was significantly decreased and the severity of myocarditis was significantly lessened. In conclusion, CVB3 may induce viral myocarditis by upregulating toll-like receptor 4 expression. The viral myocarditis can be ameliorated by silencing the TLR4 gene in the CVB3 viral myocarditis model, which may be a feasible therapeutic method for treatment of viral myocarditis.

Key words

viral myocarditis coxsackievirus B3 toll-like receptor 4 cardiac enzymes 



aspartate transaminase


creatine kinase


creatine kinase isoenzyme


coxsackievirus B3


hematoxylin and eosin


lactate dehydrogenase


real-time PCR


small interfering RNA


50% tissue culture infectious dose


toll-like receptor 4


toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB signal pathway


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhao Zhao
    • 1
  • Tian-Zhi Cai
    • 2
  • Yan Lu
    • 1
  • Wen-Jun Liu
    • 1
  • Man-Li Cheng
    • 1
  • Yu-Qiang Ji
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Cardiovascular MedicineFirst Hospital of Xi’anXi’anChina
  2. 2.Department of Cardiovascular MedicineAffiliated Hospital of Xi’an Medical UniversityXi’anChina

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