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Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 78, Issue 13, pp 1447–1465 | Cite as

Human cardiac troponin complex. Structure and functions

  • I. A. KatrukhaEmail author
Review

Abstract

Troponin complex is a component of skeletal and cardiac muscle thin filaments. It consists of three subunits — troponin I, T, and C, and it plays a crucial role in muscle activity, connecting changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration with generation of contraction. In spite of more than 40 years of studies, many aspects of troponin functioning are still not completely understood, and several models describing the mechanism of muscle contraction exist. Being a key factor in the regulation of cardiac muscle contraction, troponin complex is utilized in medicine as a target for some cardiotonic drugs used in the treatment of heart failure. A number of mutations in troponin subunits are associated with development of different types of cardiomyopathy. Moreover, for the last 25 years cardiac isoforms of troponin I and T have been widely used for immunochemical diagnostics of pathologies associated with cardiomyocyte death (myocardial infarction, myocardial trauma, and others). This review summarizes the existing evidence on the structure and function of troponin complex subunits, their role in the regulation of cardiac muscle contraction, and their clinical applications.

Key words

troponin complex muscle contraction phosphorylation troponin I troponin T troponin C 

Abbreviations

a.a.

amino acid residue

cMyBP-C

cardiac myosin binding protein-C

c/ssTnC

cardiac/slow skeletal isoform of human troponin C

DCM

dilated cardiomyopathy

FRET

Forster resonance energy transfer

HCM

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

hcTnI

human cardiac troponin I

hcTnT

human cardiac troponin T

ID

troponin I inhibitory domain

MD

troponin I mobile domain

NMR

nuclear magnetic resonance

PKA

protein kinase A

PKC

protein kinase C

PP1 and PP2

protein phosphatases 1 and 2

RCM

restrictive cardiomyopathy

RD

troponin I regulatory domain

SDSL-EPR

sitedirected spin labeling electron paramagnetic resonance

TnC

troponin C

TnI

troponin I

TnT

troponin T

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Supplementary material

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© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biochemistry, Biological FacultyLomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

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