Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 78, Issue 11, pp 1228–1237 | Cite as

Malignant melanoma and melanocortin 1 receptor

  • A. A. RosenkranzEmail author
  • T. A. Slastnikova
  • M. O. Durymanov
  • A. S. Sobolev


The conventional chemotherapeutic treatment of malignant melanoma still remains poorly efficient in most cases. Thus the use of specific features of these tumors for development of new therapeutic modalities is highly needed. Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) overexpression on the cell surface of the vast majority of human melanomas, making MC1R a valuable marker of these tumors, is one of these features. Naturally, MC1R plays a key role in skin protection against damaging ultraviolet radiation by regulating eumelanin production. MC1R activation is involved in regulation of melanocyte cell division. This article reviews the peculiarities of regulation and expression of MC1R, melanocytes, and melanoma cells, along with the possible connection of MC1R with signaling pathways regulating proliferation of tumor cells. MC1R is a cell surface endocytic receptor, thus considered perspective for diagnostics and targeted drug delivery. A number of new therapeutic approaches that utilize MC1R, including endoradiotherapy with Auger electron and α- and β-particle emitters, photodynamic therapy, and gene therapy are now being developed.

Key words

melanoma melanocortin 1 receptor α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor endocytosis cancer therapy diagnostics 





agouti-related protein


α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone






agouti signal protein


apoptosis regulator from B-cell lymphoma 2


β-defensin 3


v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1


cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A


cAMP-responsive element


cAMP-responsive element-binding protein


extracellular signal-regulated kinases


G-protein coupled receptors


GPCR kinase


nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor


linear energy transfer


mitogen-activated protein kinases


melanocortin 1 receptor


mahogunin RING finger-1 (ubiquitin E3 ligase with RING-domain)


microphthalmia transcription factor


melanocortin-2-receptor accessory protein


mammalian target of rapamycin


neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 9


nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells


Na-I symporter


protein kinase A


real interesting new gene






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Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. A. Rosenkranz
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • T. A. Slastnikova
    • 1
  • M. O. Durymanov
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. S. Sobolev
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Gene BiologyRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Faculty of BiologyLomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Targeted Delivery of Pharmaceuticals “Translek” LLCMoscowRussia

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