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Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 78, Issue 4, pp 325–334 | Cite as

Role of microRNAs in mechanisms of glioblastoma resistance to radio- and chemotherapy

  • Ph. A. KoshkinEmail author
  • D. A. Chistiakov
  • V. P. Chekhonin
Review

Abstract

Low-grade gliomas and multiform glioblastoma are characterized by highly pronounced anaplasia, malignization, proliferation, and invasiveness; moreover, they are highly resistant to chemo- and radiotherapy. The very low efficiency of traditional approaches in the treatment of patients with glioblastomas is due to the intensive invasive growth of the tumor resulting in deep infiltration of adjacent normal perivascular and nervous tissue and formation of areas of perineural infiltration differently remote from the tumor epicenter. MicroRNAs are key posttranscriptional regulators of gene activities, and their expression is markedly increased in tumors, in particular in gliomas. MicroRNAs have been shown to promote the growth, proliferation, migration, and survival of tumor stem and non-stem cells. However, a population of microRNA possessing antitumor effects is also detected in gliomas. As a rule, the expression of antitumor microRNAs is suppressed in tumors. In this review, we consider microRNAs, their influence on radio- and chemoresistance of gliomas, and prospects for their use as specific agents in targeted therapy of gliomas. The pool of these microRNAs has distinct therapeutic value, because on use in combined therapy it can decrease the resistance of glioma tumor stem cells to existing pharmaceuticals and improve the efficiency of radio- and chemotherapy.

Key words

microRNA brain tumors glioma chemotherapy radiotherapy targeted delivery 

Abbreviations

ABC

ATP-binding cassette carriers

ABCB1 (MDR1)

multiple drug resistance protein 1

ABCG2 (BCRP1)

ATP-binding cassette protein of G subfamily subunit 2

AhR

aryl hydrocarbon receptor

AKT

protein kinase B

ATM

protein kinase ATM

Bax/Bcl-2

Bcl2-associated protein X

Bcl-2

apoptosis regulator Bcl-2

BRCA1

protein responsible for DNA repair

BRCA2

protein responsible for repair of double-strain breaks

Cdc25a

phosphatase with double specificity

c-Myc

homolog of viral oncogene of avian myelocytomatosis V-myc

CSA (ERCC8) and CSB (ERCC6)

excision repair proteins

CXCR4

chemokine receptor of type 4

Dio3

gene encoding iodothyronine 5′-monoiodinase

Dlk1

gene encoding δ-like protein-1

DNA-PK

DNA-dependent protein kinase

EGFR

epidermal growth factor receptor

FEN1

flap-endonuclease 1

HIPK2

homeodomain-inter-acting protein kinase 2

Ku70 and Ku80

parts of heterodimeric protein binding to DNA double-strand break ends

Lig1 and Lig4

DNA ligases 1 and 4, respectively

L1CAM

L1 cell adhesion molecule

LRRFIP1 (leucine-rich repeat flightless-interacting protein 1)

cytosolic nucleic acid-binding protein

MCF-7

mammary gland carcinoma cell line

MDR

multiple drug resistance

MDR3 (ABCB4)

multiple drug resistance protein

MG

multiform glioblastoma

MRN

a three-protein (Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1) DNA repair complex

MVP (major vault protein)

a new multidrug resistance associated protein

NF-κB

nuclear factor κB

Notch

family of transmembrane proteins with repeated extracellular EGF and DSL domains

p21/waf

inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase

PI3K

phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase

PTEN

a dual-specificity protein phosphatase

PXR

pregnane X receptor

RAD51

homolog of RAD51 (S. cerevisiae) or homolog of RecA (E. coli)

RAD52

homolog of RAD52

RAD54

protein involved in chromatin remodeling

RAD55 and RAD57

proteins acting in complex with RAD51

RFC

replication factor C subunit-1

SGF-1

stromal growth factor-1

shRNA

short hairpin RNAs

STAT-3

signal transducers and transcription activator

TGF-β

transforming growth factor β

TIMP3

metalloproteinase inhibitor 3

TSCs

tumor stem cells

XPA,B,C,D,G

proteins involved in DNA repair

XRCC4

protein of DNA repair

VEGF

vascular endothelium growth factor

VM-26

teniposide

VP-16

etoposide

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ph. A. Koshkin
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • D. A. Chistiakov
    • 1
  • V. P. Chekhonin
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Medical NanobiotechnologyN. I. Pirogov Russian National Research Medical UniversityMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Department of Fundamental and Applied NeurobiologySerbsky State Scientific Center for Social and Forensic PsychiatryMoscowRussia

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