Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 78, Issue 1, pp 19–36 | Cite as

Keap1/Nrf2/ARE redox-sensitive signaling system as a pharmacological target

  • N. K. Zenkov
  • E. B. MenshchikovaEmail author
  • V. O. Tkachev


The redox-sensitive signaling system Keap1/Nrf2/ARE plays a key role in maintenance of cellular homeostasis under stress, inflammatory, carcinogenic, and proapoptotic conditions, which allows us to consider it as a pharmacological target. Here we review the basic regulatory mechanisms of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE system, key targets for pharmacological intervention, and interconnection of this system with other redox-sensitive transcriptional factors. We also discuss the range of currently available pharmaceuticals. Finally, we promote “indirect” antioxidants as a promising strategy for prevention and treatment of wide range of diseases associated with oxidative stress.

Key words

Nrf2 antioxidant-responsive element (ARE) transcription factors pharmaceuticals 



antioxidant-responsive element


cap’n’Collar family


Cullin-3-containing ubiquitin-ligase complex E3


Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1


mitogen-activated protein kinases


NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1


NF-E2-bound factor 2


reactive oxygen species


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. K. Zenkov
    • 1
  • E. B. Menshchikova
    • 1
    Email author
  • V. O. Tkachev
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Scientific Center of Clinical and Experimental MedicineSiberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical SciencesNovosibirskRussia
  2. 2.University of Michigan School of MedicineAnn ArborUSA

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