Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 78, Issue 1, pp 8–18 | Cite as

Insulin resistance and adipogenesis: Role of transcription and secreted factors

  • D. N. PenkovEmail author
  • A. D. Egorov
  • M. N. Mozgovaya
  • V. A. Tkachuk


Insulin stimulates carbohydrate uptake by cells and induces their conversion into lipids as a more efficient form of energy storage. Insulin resistance is associated with a decrease in glucose uptake by muscle and adipose cells and also with a decrease in glycogen synthesis on retention of glucose synthesis by liver cells. Disorders in the insulin signaling cascade on development of insulin resistance can be caused by both changes in functioning of transcriptional factors and in the secretion profile of hormone-like substances. Diacylglycerols and ceramides responsible for activation of some kinases and phosphatases can directly trigger these changes in muscle and liver cells. In adipose tissue, insulin mainly stimulates adipogenesis (adipocyte differentiation) and lipogenesis (lipid accumulation in the cells). Thus, studies on the action mechanisms of factors influencing adipogenesis can be of help for understanding the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance.

Key words

insulin resistance insulin adipogenesis adipose tissue Prep1 



protein binding regulatory elements of carbohydrates


glucose transporter 4


growth factor receptor-binding protein 10


glycogen synthase kinase 3


insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor


insulin receptor


insulin receptor protein substrate


mammalian target of rapamycin


3-phospho-inositide-dependent kinase 1


phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase








protein kinase C


protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B


protein partner of mTOR


protein partner of mTOR


Src-homologous domain 2 phosphatase 2


suppressor of cytokine signaling 1


suppressor of cytokine signaling 3


protein binding regulatory elements of sterols 1c


three amino acid loop extension family of proteins


tumor necrosis factor α


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. N. Penkov
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. D. Egorov
    • 2
  • M. N. Mozgovaya
    • 2
  • V. A. Tkachuk
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Russian Cardiology Research and Production CenterMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Faculty of Basic MedicineLomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

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