Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 78, Issue 1, pp 8–18 | Cite as

Insulin resistance and adipogenesis: Role of transcription and secreted factors

  • D. N. Penkov
  • A. D. Egorov
  • M. N. Mozgovaya
  • V. A. Tkachuk
Article

Abstract

Insulin stimulates carbohydrate uptake by cells and induces their conversion into lipids as a more efficient form of energy storage. Insulin resistance is associated with a decrease in glucose uptake by muscle and adipose cells and also with a decrease in glycogen synthesis on retention of glucose synthesis by liver cells. Disorders in the insulin signaling cascade on development of insulin resistance can be caused by both changes in functioning of transcriptional factors and in the secretion profile of hormone-like substances. Diacylglycerols and ceramides responsible for activation of some kinases and phosphatases can directly trigger these changes in muscle and liver cells. In adipose tissue, insulin mainly stimulates adipogenesis (adipocyte differentiation) and lipogenesis (lipid accumulation in the cells). Thus, studies on the action mechanisms of factors influencing adipogenesis can be of help for understanding the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance.

Key words

insulin resistance insulin adipogenesis adipose tissue Prep1 

Abbreviations

ChREBP

protein binding regulatory elements of carbohydrates

GLUT4

glucose transporter 4

Grb10

growth factor receptor-binding protein 10

GSK3

glycogen synthase kinase 3

IGF1R

insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor

IR

insulin receptor

IRS

insulin receptor protein substrate

mTOR

mammalian target of rapamycin

PDK1

3-phospho-inositide-dependent kinase 1

PEPCK

phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase

PI3K

phoshoinositide-3-kinase

PIP2

phosphatidylinositol-4,5-diphosphate

PIP3

phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate

PKC

protein kinase C

PTP1B

protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B

Raptor

protein partner of mTOR

Rictor

protein partner of mTOR

SHP-2

Src-homologous domain 2 phosphatase 2

SOCS1

suppressor of cytokine signaling 1

SOCS3

suppressor of cytokine signaling 3

SREBP1c

protein binding regulatory elements of sterols 1c

TALE

three amino acid loop extension family of proteins

TNFα

tumor necrosis factor α

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. N. Penkov
    • 1
  • A. D. Egorov
    • 2
  • M. N. Mozgovaya
    • 2
  • V. A. Tkachuk
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Russian Cardiology Research and Production CenterMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Faculty of Basic MedicineLomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

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