Programmed cell death in plants: Protective effect of tetraphenylphosphonium and tetramethylrhodamine cations used as transmembrane quinone carriers
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Tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+) and tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester (TMRE+) cations used as transmembrane carriers of ubiquinone (MitoQ) and plastoquinone (SkQ, SkQR) in mitochondria prevented at nanomolar concentrations the chitosanor H2O2-induced destruction of the nucleus in epidermal cells of epidermis isolated from pea leaves. The protective effect of the cations was potentiated by palmitate. Penetrating anions of tetraphenylboron (TB−) and phenyl dicarbaundecaborane also displayed protective effects at micromolar concentrations; the effect of TB− was potentiated by NH4Cl. It is proposed that the protective effect of the penetrating cations and anions against chitosan is due to suppression of the generation of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria as a result of the protonophoric effect of the cations plus fatty acids and the anions plus NH 4 + . Phenol was suitable as the electron donor for H2O2 reduction catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase, preventing the destruction of cell nuclei. The penetrating cations and anions, SkQ1, and SkQR1 did not maintain the peroxidase or peroxidase/oxidase reactions measured by their suitability as electron donors for H2O2 reduction or by the oxidation of exogenous NADH.
Key wordspenetrating ions tetraphenylphosphonium tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester tetraphenylboron anion phenyl dicarbaundecaborane anion cell nucleus destruction protective effect plant epidermal cells chitosan CN−
carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone
programmed cell death
reactive oxygen species
tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester
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