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Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 76, Issue 12, pp 1279–1290 | Cite as

Mechanisms of autophagy and pexophagy in yeasts

  • A. A. SibirnyEmail author
Review

Abstract

Autophagy is a process of recycling of the intracellular constituents using vacuoles (lysosomes). General autophagy occurs due to involvement of highly conservative components found in all eukaryotes, from yeasts to higher plants and humans. Autophagy also could be a selective process and be involved in regulation of the cellular number of organelles, including that of peroxisomes. The process of specific autophagic peroxisome degradation is known as pexophagy. Yeasts appear to be convenient model for studying molecular mechanisms of pexophagy, and most known ATG genes (from the term AuTophaGy) were identified in yeast studies. This review examines characteristics of general autophagy, other types of autophagy as well as pexophagy, in particular, functions of Atg proteins in general autophagy and in macro- and micropexophagy. Special attention is given to mechanisms of phagophore assembly, the role of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate in pexophagy, the role of peroxines (proteins involved in peroxisome biogenesis) in pexophagy, as well as properties of Atg proteins specifically involved in micropexophagy.

Key words

autophagy pexophagy macropexophagy micropexophagy Cvt pathway Atg proteins yeasts 

Abbreviations

Cvt

cytoplasm to vacuole targeting pathway

MIPA

micropexophagy apparatus

PAS

preautophagosomal structure (or phagophore assemblage site)

phagophore

isolation membrane

PNS

perinuclear structure of nuclear membrane

VSM

vacuolar sequestering membranes

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Cell BiologyNational Academy of Sciences of UkraineLvivUkraine
  2. 2.University of RzeszowRzeszowPoland

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