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Biochemistry (Moscow)

, 76:981 | Cite as

Role of Epac proteins in mechanisms of cAMP-dependent immunoregulation

  • S. V. ShirshevEmail author
Review

Abstract

This review presents observations on the role of Epac proteins (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP) in immunoregulation mechanisms. Signaling pathways that involve Epac proteins and their domain organization and functions are considered. The role of Epac1 protein expressed in the immune system cells is especially emphasized. Molecular mechanisms of the cAMP-dependent signal via Epac1 are analyzed in monocytes/macrophages, T-cells, and B-lymphocytes. The role of Epac1 is shown in the regulation of adhesion, leukocyte chemotaxis, as well as in phagocytosis and bacterial killing. The molecular cascade initiated by Epac1 is examined under conditions of antigen activation of T-cells and immature B-lymphocytes.

Key words

Epac proteins monocytes/macrophages T-lymphocytes B-lymphocytes 

Abbreviations

Ac

adenylate cyclase

AKAP

A kinase anchoring protein

APC

antigen-presenting cell

BCR

B-cell receptor

cAMP

adenosine-3′,5′-cyclophosphate

CD

cluster of differentiation

C3G

CrkSrk homology 3 (SH3) domain guanine nucleotide exchanger

CR

complement receptor

DAG

diacylglycerol

Epac

exchange protein directly activated by cAMP

ERK

extracellular signal-regulated kinase

FoxO1

O-class forkhead transcription factor

GEF

guanine nucleotide exchange factor

GPCR

G-protein coupled receptor

IFN

interferon

IL

interleukin

IP3

inositol-3-phosphate

Jak

Janus kinase (Just another kinase)

JNK

N-terminal kinase of the Jun transcription factor

Lyn

tyrosine kinase of the Src family

LFA-1

leukocyte function associated antigen-1

MAPK

mitogen-activated protein kinase

MHC

major histocompatibility complex

PA

phosphatidic acid

PDE

phosphodiesterase

PI3K

phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase

PI-3,4,5-P3

phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate

PKA

protein kinase A

PKB/Akt

protein kinase B

PKC

protein kinase C

PLC

phospholipase C

Rap

small GTPase

Rap-GAP

GTPaseactivating protein

Rap-GRP

guanine nucleotide-releasing protein

RAPL

regulator of cell adhesion and polarization in the lymphoid tissue

ROS

reactive oxygen species

TCR

T-cell receptor

TEM

transendothelial migration

TGF

transforming growth factor

TNF

tumor necrosis factor

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© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Ecology and Genetics of MicroorganismsUral Branch of the Russian Academy of SciencesPermRussia

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