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Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 76, Issue 4, pp 407–422 | Cite as

Mechanism of the Nrf2/Keap1/ARE signaling system

  • V. O. TkachevEmail author
  • E. B. Menshchikova
  • N. K. Zenkov
Review

Abstract

Nrf2 regulates expression of genes containing antioxidant-respons(iv)e element (ARE) in their promoters and plays a pivotal role among all redox-sensitive transcription factors. Nrf2 is constitutively controlled by repressor protein Keap1, which acts as a molecular sensor of disturbances in cellular homeostasis. These molecular patterns are in close inter-connection and function as parts of the integrated redox-sensitive signaling system Nrf2/Keap1/ARE. Depending on cellular redox balance, activity of this signaling system changes at the levels of transcription, translation, posttranslational modification, nuclear translocation of transcription factor, and its binding to ARE-driven gene promoters. This review summarizes current conceptions of Nrf2/Keap1/ARE induction and inactivation.

Key words

redox regulation Nrf2 Keap1 antioxidant-respons(iv)e element (ARE) 

Abbreviations

AhR

aromatic hydrocarbon receptor

ARE

antioxidant-responsive element

CNC

Cap’n’Collar family

CTR

C-terminal region

Cul3-E3-ligase

cullin-3-containing ubiquitin-ligase E3 complex

15d-PGJ2

15-deoxy-prostaglandin J2

GCLC

glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit

HO-1

heme oxygenase-1

IRES

internal ribosome entry site

Keap1

Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1

MAPK

mitogen-activated protein kinase

Neh

Nrf2-ECH homolog

NES

nuclear export signal

NLS

nuclear localization signal

NQO1

NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1

Nrf2

NF-E2-bound factor 2

NTR

N-terminal region

PGAM5

phosphoglycerate mutase 5

ROS

reactive oxygen species

tBHQ

tert-butylhydroquinone

TRE

12-O-tetrade-canoylphorbol-13-acetate-responsive element

XRE

xenobiotic-responsive element

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • V. O. Tkachev
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • E. B. Menshchikova
    • 1
  • N. K. Zenkov
    • 1
  1. 1.Scientific Center of Clinical and Experimental MedicineSiberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical SciencesNovosibirskRussia
  2. 2.Institute of Clinical ImmunologySiberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Medical SciencesNovosibirskRussia

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