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Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 75, Issue 13, pp 1547–1562 | Cite as

Biochemical polymorphism of the growth hormone system proteins and its manifestations in human prostate cells

  • S. S. ShishkinEmail author
  • K. V. Lisitskaya
  • I. N. Krakhmaleva
Review
  • 46 Downloads

Abstract

The basic mechanisms are considered that are responsible for producing biochemical polymorphism of human proteins realized at three basic levels: the structures of genome and genes; the transcription and maturation of transcripts; the postsynthetic formation of functionally active protein products of gene expression. The data on biochemical polymorphism of growth hormone (GH) and some other proteins that are directly or indirectly necessary for its functioning and support this polymorphism by polylocus, polyallelism, alternative splicing, and various postsynthetic modifications are analyzed. The role of polymorphic proteins of the GH system is discussed in formation of a variety of oligomeric molecular structures of this system (multicomponent transport complexes, receptors, and endocellular protein ensembles involved in the regulation of gene expression). It is emphasized that such structural polymorphism significantly influences the biological effects in various parts of the GH system during physiological processes and in tumors, in particular in prostate cancer.

Key words

biochemical polymorphism growth hormone system prostate cancer 

Abbreviations

GH

growth hormone

GHR

growth hormone receptor

IGFs

insulin-like growth factors

IGFBPs

insulinlike growth factor binding proteins

IRSs

insulin receptor protein substrates

MAP

mitogen-activated protein kinases

PC

prostate cancer

SNPs

single nucleotide polymorphisms

STAT

a protein family of signal transducers and activators of transcription

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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. S. Shishkin
    • 1
    Email author
  • K. V. Lisitskaya
    • 1
  • I. N. Krakhmaleva
    • 1
  1. 1.Bach Institute of BiochemistryRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

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