Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 75, Issue 9, pp 1098–1114 | Cite as

Toll-like receptors and their adapter molecules

  • A. I. TukhvatulinEmail author
  • D. Yu. Logunov
  • D. N. Shcherbinin
  • M. M. Shmarov
  • B. S. Naroditsky
  • A. V. Gudkov
  • A. L. Gintsburg


Toll-like receptors (TLR) are among key receptors of the innate mammalian immune system. Receptors of this family are able to recognize specific highly conserved molecular regions (patterns) in pathogen structures, thus initiating reactions of both innate and acquired immune response finally resulting in the elimination of the pathogen. In this case every individual TLR type is able to bind a broad spectrum of molecules of microbial origin characterized by different chemical properties and structures. Recent data demonstrate the existence of a multistep mechanism of the TLR recognition of the pathogen in which, in addition to receptors proper, the involvement of different adapter molecules is necessary. However, functions of separate adapter molecules as well as the principles of formation of a multicomponent system of ligand-specific recognition are still not quite understandable. We describe all identified as well as possible (candidate) adapter TLR molecules by giving their brief characteristics, and we also propose generalized possible variants of the TLR ligand-specific recognition with involvement of adapter molecules.

Key words

Toll-like receptors adapter molecules ligand-receptor recognition 



activator protein 1


chemokine receptor 6


damage-associated molecular patterns


double-stranded RNA


hepatoma-derived growth factor


high mobility group protein 1


interferon α


interferon regulatory transcription factor 1


LPS-binding protein


leucine rich repeats


lipoteichoic acid


mannose-binding protein


myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88)


(NACHT-, LRR-, and PYD-containing proteins)


nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells

NK cells

natural killer cells


pathogen-associated molecular patterns


peptidoglycan-recognizing protein


pattern-recognizing receptors


renal cell carcinoma antigen


radioprotective protein with molecular mass 105 kDa


surfactant-associated protein A


surfactant-associated protein D


Toll/interleukin-1 receptor homology domain


Toll-like receptors


tumor necrosis factor α


Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein


TRIF-related adaptor molecule


TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β


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Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. I. Tukhvatulin
    • 1
    Email author
  • D. Yu. Logunov
    • 1
  • D. N. Shcherbinin
    • 1
  • M. M. Shmarov
    • 1
  • B. S. Naroditsky
    • 1
  • A. V. Gudkov
    • 2
  • A. L. Gintsburg
    • 1
  1. 1.Gamaleya Institute of Epidemiology and MicrobiologyRussian Academy of Medical SciencesMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Roswell Park Cancer InstituteBuffaloUSA

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