Acetoacetate as regulator of palmitic acid-induced uncoupling involving liver mitochondrial ADP/ATP antiporter and aspartate/glutamate antiporter
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The effect of acetoacetate on palmitate-induced uncoupling with the involvement of ADP/ATP antiporter and aspartate/glutamate antiporter has been studied in liver mitochondria. The incubation of mitochondria with acetoacetate during succinate oxidation in the presence of rotenone, oligomycin, and EGTA suppresses the accumulation of conjugated dienes. This is considered as a display of antioxidant effect of acetoacetate. Under these conditions, acetoacetate does not influence the respiration of mitochondria in the absence or presence of palmitate but eliminates the ability of carboxyatractylate or aspartate separately to suppress the uncoupling effect of this fatty acid. The action of acetoacetate is eliminated by β-hydroxybutyrate or thiourea, but not by the antioxidant Trolox. In the absence of acetoacetate, the palmitate-induced uncoupling is limited by a stage sensitive to carboxyatractylate (ADP/ATP antiporter) or aspartate (aspartate/glutamate antiporter); in its presence, it is limited by a stage insensitive to the effect of these agents. In the presence of Trolox, ADP suppresses the uncoupling action of palmitate to the same degree as carboxyatractylate. Under these conditions, acetoacetate eliminates the recoupling effects of ADP and aspartate, including their joint action. This effect of acetoacetate is eliminated by β-hydroxybutyrate or thiourea. It is supposed that the stimulating effect of acetoacetate is caused both by increase in the rate of transfer of fatty acid anion from the inner monolayer of the membrane to the outer one, which involves the ADP/ATP antiporter and aspartate/glutamate antiporter, and by elimination of the ability of ADP to inhibit this transport. Under conditions of excessive production of reactive oxygen species in mitochondria at a high membrane potential and in the presence of small amounts of fatty acids, such effect of acetoacetate can be considered as one of the mechanisms of antioxidant protection.
Key wordsliver mitochondria acetoacetate fatty acids uncoupling ADP/ATP antiporter aspartate/glutamate antiporter
reactive oxygen species
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