Advertisement

Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 75, Issue 3, pp 281–296 | Cite as

Oxidative stress in yeast

  • V. I. LushchakEmail author
Review

Abstract

The mechanisms of production and elimination of reactive oxygen species in the cells of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae are analyzed. Coordinative role of special regulatory proteins including Yap1p, Msn2/4p, and Skn7p (Pos9p) in regulation of defense mechanisms in S. cerevisiae is described. A special section is devoted to two other well-studied species from the point of view of oxidative stress — Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Candida albicans. Some examples demonstrating the use of yeast for investigation of apoptosis, aging, and some human diseases are given in the conclusion part.

Key words

yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae Schizosaccharomyces pombe Candida albicans oxidative stress response regulatory proteins 

Abbreviations

AMT

aminotriazole

cAMP-PKA

cAMP-dependent protein kinase A

DDC

diethyldithiocarbamate

G6PDH

glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

ROS

reactive oxygen species

SOD

superoxide dismutase

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Harman, D. (1956) J. Gerontol., 11, 298–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    McCord, J. M., and Fridovich, I. (1969) J. Biol. Chem., 244, 6049–6055.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Rapoport, R. M., and Murad, F. (1983) J. Cyclic Nucleotide Protein Phosphor. Res., 9, 281–296.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Paul, B., and Sbarra, A. J. (1968) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 156, 168–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Storz, G., and Imlay, J. A. (1999) Curr. Opin. Microbiol., 2, 188–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kuge, S., and Jones, N. (1994) EMBO J., 13, 655–664.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Delaunay, A., Isnard, A. D., and Toledano, M. B. (2000) EMBO J., 19, 5157–5166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Drakulic, T., Temple, M. D., Guido, R., Jarolim, S., Breitenbach, M., Artfield, P. V., and Dawes, I. W. (2005) FEMS Yeast Res., 5, 1215–1228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Costa, V., Amorim, M. A., Reis, E., Quintanilha, A., and Moradas-Ferreira, P. (1997) Microbiology, 143, 1649–1656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Stephen, D. W., and Jamieson, D. J. (1996) FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 141, 207–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lushchak, V. I., and Gospodaryov, D. V. (2005) Cell Biol. Int., 29, 187–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bayliak, M., Gospodaryov, D., Semchyshyn, H., and Lushchak, V. (2008) Biochemistry (Moscow), 73, 420–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lushchak, V., Semchyshyn, H., Lushchak, O., and Mandryk, S. (2005) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 338, 1739–1744.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lushchak, V., Semchyshyn, H., Mandryk, S., and Lushchak, O. (2005) Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 441, 35–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lushchak, V. I. (2006) Acta Biochim. Pol., 53, 679–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Halliwell, B., and Gutteridge, J. M. C. (1989) Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bayliak, M. M., Semchyshyn, H. M., and Lushchak, V. I. (2006) Ukr. Biokhim. Zh., 78, 79–85.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bayliak, M., Semchyshyn, H., and Lushchak, V. I. (2006) Biochemistry (Moscow), 71, 1013–1020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dirmeier, R., O’Brien, K. M., Engle, M., Dodd, A., Spears, E., and Poyton, R. O. (2002) J. Biol. Chem., 277, 34773–34784.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Agarwal, S., Sharma, S., Agrawal, V., and Roy, N. (2005) Free Radic. Res., 39, 55–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lushchak, O. V., and Lushchak, V. I. (2008) Redox Rep., 13, 144–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pocsi, I., Prade, R. A., and Penninckx, M. J. (2004) Adv. Microb. Physiol., 49, 1–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lee, J. C., Straffon, M. J., Jang, T. Y., Higgins, V. J., Grant, C. M., and Dawes, I. W. (2001) FEMS Yeast Res., 1, 57–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lushchak, O. V., and Lushchak, V. I. (2008) Redox Report, 13, 283–291.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Cabiscol, E., Piulats, E., Echave, P., Herrero, E., and Ros, J. (2000) J. Biol. Chem., 275, 27393–27398.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mirzaei, H., and Regnier, F. (2007) J. Chromatogr. A., 1141, 22–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Semchyshyn, H. M., Dylyovyj, M. V., Klymenko, A. O., and Lushchak, V. I. (2001) Ukr. Biokhim. Zh., 73, 24–28.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Seaver, L. C., and Imlay, J. A. (2001) J. Bacteriol., 183, 7182–7189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Branco, M. R., Marinho, H. S., Cyrne, L., and Antunes, F. (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 6501–6506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Bienert, G. P., Schjoerring, J. K., and Jahn, T. P. (2006) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1758, 994–1003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Salmon, T. B., Evert, B. A., Song, B., and Doetsch, P. W. (2004) Nucleic Acids Res., 32, 3712–3723.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Evert, B. A., Salmon, T. B., Song, B., Jingjing, L., Siede W., and Doetsch, P. W. (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 22585–22594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wiatrowski, H. A., and Carlson, M. (2003) Eukaryot. Cell, 2, 19–26.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kuge, S., Arita, M., Murayama, A., Maeta, K., Izawa, S., Inoue, Y., and Nomoto, A. (2001) Mol. Cell. Biol., 21, 6139–6150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Fernandes, L., Rodrigues-Pousada, C., and Struhl, K. (1997) Mol. Cell. Biol., 17, 6982–6993.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Moye-Rowley, W. S., Harshman, K. D., and Parker, C. S. (1989) Genes Dev., 3, 283–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Stephen, D. W., Rivers, S. L., and Jamieson, D. J. (1995) Mol. Microbiol., 16, 415–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bauer, B. E., Wolfger, H., and Kuchler, K. (1999) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1461, 217–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kolaczkowska, A., and Goffeau, A. (1999) Drug Resist. Update, 2, 403–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Toone, W. M., and Jones, N. (1999) Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev., 9, 55–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wu, A. L., and Moye-Rowley, W. S. (1994) Mol. Cell. Biol., 14, 5832–5839.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Sugiyama, K., Izawa, S., and Inoue, Y. (2000) J. Biol. Chem., 275, 15535–15540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Morgan, B. A., Banks, G. R., Toone, W. M., Raitt, D., Kuge, S., and Johnston, L. H. (1997) EMBO J., 16, 1035–1044.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Grant, C. M., Collinson, L. P., Roe, J.-H., and Dawes, I. W. (1996) Mol. Microbiol., 21, 171–179.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Inoue, Y., Matsuda, T., Sugiyama, K., Izawa, S., and Kimura, A. (1999) J. Biol. Chem., 274, 27002–27009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lee, J., Godon, C., Lagniel, G., Spector, D., Garin, J., Labarre, J., and Toledano, M. B. (1999) J. Biol. Chem., 274, 16040–16046.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Lee, J., Spector, D., Godon, C., Labarre, J., and Toledano, M. B. (1999) J. Biol. Chem., 274, 4537–4544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Wemmie, J. A., Steggerda, S. M., and Moye-Rowley, W. S. (1997) J. Biol. Chem., 272, 7908–7914.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Coleman, S. T., Epping, E. A., Steggerda, S. M., and Moye-Rowley, W. S. (1999) Mol. Cell. Biol., 19, 8302–8313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Alarco, A.-M., Balan, I., Talibi, D., Mainville, N., and Raymond, M. (1997) J. Biol. Chem., 272, 19304–19313.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    DeRisi, J. L., Iyer, V. R., and Brown, P. O. (1997) Science, 278, 680–686.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kudo, N., Taoka, H., Toda, T., Yoshida, M., and Horinouchi, S. (1999) J. Biol. Chem., 274, 15151–15158.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kuge, S., Toda, T., Iizuka, N., and Nomoto, A. (1998) Genes Cells, 3, 521–532.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Toledano, M. B., Kumar, C., Le Moan, N., Spector, D., and Tacnet, F. (2007) FEBS Lett., 581, 3598–3607.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Veal, E. A., Ross, S. J., Malakasi, P., Peacock, E., and Morgan, B. A. (2003) J. Biol. Chem., 278, 30896–30904.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gulshan, K., Rovinsky, S. A., and Moye-Rowley, W. S. (2004) Eukaryot. Cell, 3, 318–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Li, Z.-S., Szczypka, M., Lu, Y.-P., Thiele, D. J., and Rea, P. A. (1996) J. Biol. Chem., 271, 6509–6517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Vido, K., Spector, D., Lagniel, G., Lopez, S., Toledano, M. B., and Labarre, J. (2001) J. Biol. Chem., 276, 8469–8474.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Martinez-Pastor, M. T., Marchler, G., Schuller, C., Marchler-Bauer, A., Ruis, H., and Estruch, F. (1996) EMBO J., 15, 2227–2235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Hasan, R., Leroy, C., Isnard, A. D., Labarre, J., Boy-Marcotte, E., and Toledano, M. B. (2002) Mol. Microbiol., 45, 233–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gorner, W., Schuller, C., and Ruis, H. (1999) Biol. Chem., 380, 147–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Durchschlag, E., Reiter, W., Ammerer, G., and Schuller, C. (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 55425–55432.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Koerkamp, M. G., Rep, M., Bussemaker, H. J., Hardy, G. P., Mul, A., Piekarska, K., Szigyarto, C. A., De Mattos, J. M., and Tabak, H. F. (2002) Mol. Biol. Cell., 13, 2783–2794.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Krems, B., Charizanis, C., and Entian, K. D. (1996) Curr. Genet., 29, 327–334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Morgan, B. A., Bouquin, N., Merrill, G. F., and Johnston, L. H. (1995) EMBO J., 14, 5679–5689.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Brown, J. L., North, S., and Bussey, H. (1993) J. Bacteriol., 175, 6908–6915.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Li, S., Ault, A., Malone, C. L., Raitt, D., Dean, S., Johnston, L. H., Deschenes, R. J., and Fassler, J. S. (1998) EMBO J., 17, 6952–6962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Lu, J. M., Deschenes, R. J., and Fassler, J. S. (2003) Eukaryot. Cell, 2, 1304–1314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Tsuzi, D., Maeta, K., Takatsume, Y., Izawa, S., and Inoue, Y. (2004) FEBS Lett., 565, 148–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    He, X. J., and Fassler, J. S. (2005) Mol. Microbiol., 58, 1454–1467.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Ross, S. J., Findlay, V. J., Malakasi, P., and Morgan, B. A. (2000) Mol. Biol. Cell., 11, 2631–2642.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Raitt, D. C., Johnson, A. L., Erkine, A. M., Makino, K., Morgan, B., Gross, D. S., and Johnston, L. H. (2000) Mol. Biol. Cell., 11, 2335–2347.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Williams, K. E., and Cyert, M. S. (2001) EMBO J., 20, 3473–3483.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Charizanis, C., Juhnke, H., Krems, B., and Entian, K. D. (1999) Mol. Gen. Genet., 261, 740–752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Navarathna, D. H., Nickerson, K. W., Duhamel, G. E., Jerrels, T. R., and Petro, T. M. (2007) Infect. Immun., 75, 4006–4011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Hwang, C. S., Rhie, G. E., Oh, J. H., Huh, W. K., Yim, H. S., and Kang, S. O. (2002) Microbiology, 148, 3705–3713.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Madrid, M., Soto, T., Franco, A., Paredes, V., Vicente, J., Hidalgo, E., Gacto, M., and Cansado, J. (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 41594–41602.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Lee, J., Dawes, I. W., and Roe, J. H. (1997) J. Biol. Chem., 272, 23042–23049.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Toone, W. M., Kuge, S., Samuels, M., Morgan, B. A., Toda, T., and Jones, N. (1998) Genes Dev., 12, 1453–1463.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Kumada, K., Yanagida, M., and Toda, T. (1996) Mol. Gen. Genet., 250, 59–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Castillo, E. A., Ayte, J., Chiva, C., Moldon, A., Carrascal, M., Abian, J., Jones, N., and Hidalgo, E. (2002) Mol. Microbiol., 45, 243–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Nguyen, A. N., Lee, A., Place, W., and Shiozaki, K. (2000) Mol. Biol. Cell., 11, 1169–1181.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nakagawa, C. W., Yamada, H., and Mutoh, N. (2000) J. Biochem., 127, 233–238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Alarco, A.-M., and Raymond, M. (1999) J. Bacteriol., 181, 700–708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Zhang, X., de Micheli, M., Coleman, S. T., Sanglard, D., and Moye-Rowley, W. S. (2000) Mol. Microbiol., 36, 618–629.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Ikner, A., and Shiozaki, K. (2005) Fundament. Molec. Mech. Mutagen., 569, 13–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Aravind, L., and Ponting, C. P. (1997) Trends Biochem. Sci., 22, 458–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Zapater, M., Clotet, J., Escote, X., and Posas, F. (2005) Cell Cycle, 4, 6–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Shieh, J., Wilkinson, M., Buck, V., Morgan, B., Makino, K., and Millar, J. (1997) Genes Dev., 11, 1008–1022.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Buck, V., Quinn, J., Pino, T. S., Martin, H., Saldanha, J., Makino, K., Morgan, B. A., and Millar, J. B. A. (2001) Mol. Biol. Cell, 12, 407–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Shiozaki, K., Shiozaki, M., and Russell, P. (1997) Mol. Biol. Cell, 8, 409–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Ohmiya, R., Kato, C., Yamada, H., Aiba, H., and Mizuno, T. (1999) J. Biochem., 125, 1061–1066.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Alex, L. A., Korch, C., Selitrennikoff, C. P., and Simon, M. I. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 95, 7069–7073.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Calera, J. A., Choi, G. H., and Calderone, R. A. (1998) Yeast, 14, 665–674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Calera, J. A., Herman, D., and Calderone, R. (2000) Yeast, 16, 1053–1059.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Calera, J. A., and Calderone, R. A. (1999) Yeast, 15, 1243–1254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Chauhan, N., Inglis, D., Roman, E., Pla, J., Li, D., Calera, J. A., and Calderone, R. (2003) Eukaryot. Cell, 2, 1018–1024.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Saito, H., and Tatebayashi, K. (2004) J. Biochem., 136, 267–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Hohmann, S., Krantz, M., and Nordlander, B. (2007) Meth. Enzymol., 428, 29–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Shiozaki, K., Shiozaki, M., and Russell, P. (1998) Mol. Biol. Cell, 9, 1339–1349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Gaits, F., Degols, G., Shiozaki, K., and Russell, P. (1998) Genes Dev., 12, 1464–1473.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Shiozaki, K., and Russell, P. (1996) Genes Dev., 10, 2276–2288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Chen, D., Toone, W. M., Mata, J., Lyne, R., Burns, G., Kivinen, K., Brazma, A., Jones, N., and Bahler, J. (2003) Mol. Biol. Cell, 14, 214–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Rodriguez-Gabriel, M. A., Burns, G., McDonald, W. H., Martin, V., Yates, J. R., III, Bahler, J., and Russell, P. (2003) EMBO J., 22, 6256–6266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Sanchez-Piris, M., Posas, F., Alemany, V., Winge, I., Hidalgo, E., Bachs, O., and Aligue, R. (2002) J. Biol. Chem., 277, 17722–17727.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Alonso-Monge, R., Navarro-Garcia, F., Roman, E., Negredo, A. I., Eisman, B., Nombela, C., and Pla, J. (2003) Eukaryot. Cell, 2, 351–361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Alonso-Monge, R., Navarro-Garcia, F., Molero, G., Diez-Orejas, R., Gustin, M., Pla, J., Sanchez, M., and Nombela, C. (1999) J. Bacteriol., 181, 3058–3068.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Chauhan, N., Latge, J. P., and Calderone, R. (2006) Nat. Rev. Microbiol., 4, 435–444.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Severin, F. F., Meer, M. V., Smirnova, E. A., Knorre, D. A., and Skulachev, V. P. (2008) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1783, 1350–1353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Fabrizio, P., and Longo, V. D. (2008) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1783, 1280–1285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Kaeberlein, M., Burtner, C. R., and Kennedy, B. K. (2007) PLoS Genet, 3, 655–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Smith, M. G., and Snyder, M. (2006) Curr. Prot. Hum. Genet., Chap. 15, Unit 15.6.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Sturgeon, C. M., Kemmer, D., Anderson, H. J., and Roberge, M. (2006) Biotechnol. J., 1, 289–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Schwimmer, C., Rak, M., Lefebvre-Legendre, L., Duvezin-Caubet, S., Plane, G., and di Rago, J. P. (2006) Biotechnol. J., 1, 270–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Cid, V. J., Rodriguez-Escudero, I., Andres-Pons, A., Roma-Mateo, C., Gil, A., den Hertog, J., Molina, M., and Pulido, R. (2008) Oncogene, 27, 5431–5442.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Lafon, A., Chang, C. S., Scott, E. M., Jacobson, S. J., and Pillus, L. (2007) Oncogene, 26, 5373–5384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Miller-Fleming, L., Giorgini, F., and Outeiro, T. F. (2008) Biotechnol. J., 3, 325–338.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Chen, Q., Ding, Q., and Keller, J. N. (2005) Biogerontology, 6, 1–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Outeiro, T. F., and Giorgini, F. (2006) Biotechnol. J., 1, 258–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Barea, F., and Bonatto, D. (2008) Mutat. Res., 642, 43–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Baker, K. D., and Thummel, C. S. (2007) Cell Metab., 6, 257–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Butterfield, D. A., and Sultana, R. (2007) J. Alzheimers Dis., 12, 61–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Von der Haar, T., Josse, L., Wright, P., Zenthon, J., and Tuite, M. F. (2007) Neurodegenerat. Dis., 4, 136–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Outeiro, T. F., and Muchowski, P. J. (2004) J. Mol. Neurosci., 23, 49–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryVassyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National UniversityIvano-FrankivskUkraine

Personalised recommendations