Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 74, Issue 13, pp 1411–1442 | Cite as

Proteasome system of protein degradation and processing

  • A. V. SorokinEmail author
  • E. R. Kim
  • L. P. Ovchinnikov


In eukaryotic cells, degradation of most intracellular proteins is realized by proteasomes. The substrates for proteolysis are selected by the fact that the gate to the proteolytic chamber of the proteasome is usually closed, and only proteins carrying a special “label” can get into it. A polyubiquitin chain plays the role of the “label”: degradation affects proteins conjugated with a ubiquitin (Ub) chain that consists at minimum of four molecules. Upon entering the proteasome channel, the polypeptide chain of the protein unfolds and stretches along it, being hydrolyzed to short peptides. Ubiquitin per se does not get into the proteasome, but, after destruction of the “labeled” molecule, it is released and labels another molecule. This process has been named “Ub-dependent protein degradation”. In this review we systematize current data on the Ub-proteasome system, describe in detail proteasome structure, the ubiquitination system, and the classical ATP/Ub-dependent mechanism of protein degradation, as well as try to focus readers’ attention on the existence of alternative mechanisms of proteasomal degradation and processing of proteins. Data on damages of the proteasome system that lead to the development of different diseases are given separately.

Key words

proteasome Ub ubiquitin degradation processing 




19S RP

19S regulatory particle

20S CP

20S core particle, core proteasome

26S PR

26S proteasome


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Supplementary material

10541_2009_9136_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (771 kb)
Supplementary material, approximately 770 KB.


  1. 1.
    Schoenheimer, R. (1942) The Dynamic State of Body Constituents, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rock, K. L., Gramm, C., Rothstein, L., Clark, K., Stein, R., Dick, L., Hwang, D., and Goldberg, A. L. (1994) Cell, 78, 761–771.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Craiu, A., Gaczynska, M., Akopian, T., Gramm, C. F., Fenteany, G., Goldberg, A. L., and Rock, K. L. (1997) J. Biol. Chem., 272, 13437–13445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kisselev, A. F., Akopian, T. N., and Goldberg, A. L. (1998) J. Biol. Chem., 273, 1982–1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kisselev, A. F., Akopian, T. N., Woo, K. M., and Goldberg, A. L. (1999) J. Biol. Chem., 274, 3363–3371.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Glickman, M. H., and Ciechanover, A. (2002) Physiol. Rev., 82, 373–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Groll, M., and Huber, R. (2003) Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol., 35, 606–616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dahlmann, B. (2005) Essays Biochem., 41, 31–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Frentzel, S., Pesold-Hurt, B., Seelig, A., and Kloetzel, P. M. (1994) J. Mol. Biol., 236, 975–981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Nandi, D., Woodward, E., Ginsburg, D. B., and Monaco, J. J. (1997) EMBO J., 16, 5363–5375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Griffin, T. A., Nandi, D., Cruz, M., Fehling, H. J., Kaer, L. V., Monaco, J. J., and Colbert, R. A. (1998) J. Exp. Med., 187, 97–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kloetzel, P. M., Soza, A., and Stohwasser, R. (1999) Biol. Chem., 380, 293–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kloetzel, P. M. (2001) Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell. Biol., 2, 179–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yewdell, J. W., Schubert, U., and Bennink, J. R. (2001) J. Cell Sci., 114, 845–851.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Coux, O., Tanaka, K., and Goldberg, A. L. (1996) Annu. Rev. Biochem., 65, 801–847.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Baumeister, W., Walz, J., Zuhl, F., and Seemuller, E. (1998) Cell, 92, 367–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kisselev, A. F., Songyang, Z., and Goldberg, A. L. (2000) J. Biol. Chem., 275, 14831–14837.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Heinemeyer, W., Fischer, M., Krimmer, T., Stachon, U., and Wolf, D. H. (1997) J. Biol. Chem., 272, 25200–25209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Arendt, C. S., and Hochstrasser, M. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 94, 7156–7161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Groll, M., Bajorek, M., Kohler, A., Moroder, L., Rubin, D. M., Huber, R., Glickman, M. H., and Finley, D. (2000) Nat. Struct. Biol., 7, 1062–1067.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kohler, A., Bajorek, M., Groll, M., Moroder, L., Rubin, D. M., Huber, R., Glickman, M. H., and Finley, D. (2001) Biochimie, 83, 325–332.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Orlowski, M., Cardozo, C., and Michaud, C. (1993) Biochemistry, 32, 1563–1572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dick, T. P., Nussbaum, A. K., Deeg, M., Heinemeyer, W., Groll, M., Schirle, M., Keilholz, W., Stevanovic, S., Wolf, D. H., Huber, R., Rammensee, H. G., and Schild, H. (1998) J. Biol. Chem., 273, 25637–25646.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Unno, M., Mizushima, T., Morimoto, Y., Tomisugi, Y., Tanaka, K., Yasuoka, N., and Tsukihara, T. (2002) Structure, 10, 609–618.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Lowe, J., Stock, D., Jap, B., Zwickl, P., Baumeister, W., and Huber, R. (1995) Science, 268, 533–539.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zwickl, P., Ng, D., Woo, K. M., Klenk, H. P., and Goldberg, A. L. (1999) J. Biol. Chem., 274, 26008–26014.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Navon, A., and Goldberg, A. L. (2001) Mol. Cell, 8, 1339–1349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Forster, A., and Hill, C. P. (2003) Trends Cell Biol., 13, 550–553.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lee, C., Prakash, S., and Matouschek, A. (2002) J. Biol. Chem., 277, 34760–34765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Groll, M., Ditzel, L., Lowe, J., Stock, D., Bochtler, M., Bartunik, H. D., and Huber, R. (1997) Nature, 386, 463–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Benaroudj, N., Zwickl, P., Seemuller, E., Baumeister, W., and Goldberg, A. L. (2003) Mol. Cell, 11, 69–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Smith, D. M., Kafri, G., Cheng, Y., Ng, D., Walz, T., and Goldberg, A. L. (2005) Mol. Cell, 20, 687–698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Smith, D. M., Chang, S. C., Park, S., Finley, D., Cheng, Y., and Goldberg, A. L. (2007) Mol. Cell, 27, 731–744.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Glickman, M. H., Rubin, D. M., Coux, O., Wefes, I., Pfeifer, G., Cjeka, Z., Baumeister, W., Fried, V. A., and Finley, D. (1998) Cell, 94, 615–623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    DeMartino, G. N., and Slaughter, C. A. (1999) J. Biol. Chem., 274, 22123–22126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rechsteiner, M., Realini, C., and Ustrell, V. (2000) Biochem. J., 345, Pt. 1, 1–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sorokin, A. V., Selyutina, A. A., Skabkin, M. A., Guryanov, S. G., Nazimov, I. V., Richard, C., Th’ng, J., Yau, J., Sorensen, P. H., Ovchinnikov, L. P., and Evdokimova, V. (2005) EMBO J., 24, 3602–3612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Liu, C. W., Corboy, M. J., DeMartino, G. N., and Thomas, P. J. (2003) Science, 299, 408–411.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tanaka, K., Yoshimura, T., and Ichihara, A. (1989) J. Biochem., 106, 495–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Bajorek, M., Finley, D., and Glickman, M. H. (2003) Curr. Biol., 13, 1140–1144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zwickl, P., Kleinz, J., and Baumeister, W. (1994) Nat. Struct. Biol., 1, 765–770.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Seemuller, E., Lupas, A., and Baumeister, W. (1996) Nature, 382, 468–471.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Grziwa, A., Maack, S., Puhler, G., Wiegand, G., Baumeister, W., and Jaenicke, R. (1994) Eur. J. Biochem., 223, 1061–1067.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Seelig, A., Multhaup, G., Pesold-Hurt, B., Beyreuther, K., and Kloetzel, P. M. (1993) J. Biol. Chem., 268, 25561–25567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Gerards, W. L., Enzlin, J., Haner, M., Hendriks, I. L., Aebi, U., Bloemendal, H., and Boelens, W. (1997) J. Biol. Chem., 272, 10080–10086.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gerards, W. L., de Jong, W. W., Bloemendal, H., and Boelens, W. (1998) J. Mol. Biol., 275, 113–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rosenzweig, R., and Glickman, M. H. (2008) Biochem. Soc. Trans., 36, 807–812.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Hirano, Y., Hendil, K. B., Yashiroda, H., Iemura, S., Nagane, R., Hioki, Y., Natsume, T., Tanaka, K., and Murata, S. (2005) Nature, 437, 1381–1385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Le Tallec, B., Barrault, M. B., Courbeyrette, R., Guerois, R., Marsolier-Kergoat, M. C., and Peyroche, A. (2007) Mol. Cell, 27, 660–674.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Li, X., Kusmierczyk, A. R., Wong, P., Emili, A., and Hochstrasser, M. (2007) EMBO J., 26, 2339–2349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yashiroda, H., Mizushima, T., Okamoto, K., Kameyama, T., Hayashi, H., Kishimoto, T., Niwa, S., Kasahara, M., Kurimoto, E., Sakata, E., Takagi, K., Suzuki, A., Hirano, Y., Murata, S., Kato, K., Yamane, T., and Tanaka, K. (2008) Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol., 15, 228–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Hirano, Y., Hayashi, H., Iemura, S., Hendil, K. B., Niwa, S., Kishimoto, T., Kasahara, M., Natsume, T., Tanaka, K., and Murata, S. (2006) Mol. Cell, 24, 977–984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Kusmierczyk, A. R., Kunjappu, M. J., Funakoshi, M., and Hochstrasser, M. (2008) Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol., 15, 237–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Schmidtke, G., Schmidt, M., and Kloetzel, P. M. (1997) J. Mol. Biol., 268, 95–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Ramos, P. C., Hockendorff, J., Johnson, E. S., Varshavsky, A., and Dohmen, R. J. (1998) Cell, 92, 489–499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Marques, A. J., Glanemann, C., Ramos, P. C., and Dohmen, R. J. (2007) J. Biol. Chem., 282, 34869–34876.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ramos, P. C., Marques, A. J., London, M. K., and Dohmen, R. J. (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 14323–14330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Schmidtke, G., Kraft, R., Kostka, S., Henklein, P., Frommel, C., Lowe, J., Huber, R., Kloetzel, P. M., and Schmidt, M. (1996) EMBO J., 15, 6887–6898.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Schmidt, M., Zantopf, D., Kraft, R., Kostka, S., Preissner, R., and Kloetzel, P. M. (1999) J. Mol. Biol., 288, 117–128.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Chen, P., and Hochstrasser, M. (1996) Cell, 86, 961–972.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Heinemeyer, W., Ramos, P. C., and Dohmen, R. J. (2004) Cell. Mol. Life Sci., 61, 1562–1578.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Fehlker, M., Wendler, P., Lehmann, A., and Enenkel, C. (2003) EMBO Rep., 4, 959–963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Russell, S. J., Steger, K. A., and Johnston, S. A. (1999) J. Biol. Chem., 274, 21943–21952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Brooks, P., Fuertes, G., Murray, R. Z., Bose, S., Knecht, E., Rechsteiner, M. C., Hendil, K. B., Tanaka, K., Dyson, J., and Rivett, J. (2000) Biochem. J., 346, Pt. 1, 155–161.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Beyer, A. (1997) Protein Sci., 6, 2043–2058.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Ogura, T., and Wilkinson, A. J. (2001) Genes Cells, 6, 575–597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Verma, R., Chen, S., Feldman, R., Schieltz, D., Yates, J., Dohmen, J., and Deshaies, R. J. (2000) Mol. Biol. Cell, 11, 3425–3439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Deveraux, Q., Jensen, C., and Rechsteiner, M. (1995) J. Biol. Chem., 270, 23726–23729.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Qiu, X. B., Ouyang, S. Y., Li, C. J., Miao, S., Wang, L., and Goldberg, A. L. (2006) EMBO J., 25, 5742–5753.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hori, T., Kato, S., Saeki, M., DeMartino, G. N., Slaughter, C. A., Takeuchi, J., Toh-e, A., and Tanaka, K. (1998) Gene, 216, 113–122.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Watanabe, T. K., Saito, A., Suzuki, M., Fujiwara, T., Takahashi, E., Slaughter, C. A., DeMartino, G. N., Hendil, K. B., Chung, C. H., Tanahashi, N., and Tanaka, K. (1998) Genomics, 50, 241–250.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sone, T., Saeki, Y., Toh-e, A., and Yokosawa, H. (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 28807–28816.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Fujimuro, M., Tanaka, K., Yokosawa, H., and Toh-e, A. (1998) FEBS Lett., 423, 149–154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Fu, H., Reis, N., Lee, Y., Glickman, M. H., and Vierstra, R. D. (2001) EMBO J., 20, 7096–7107.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Walz, J., Erdmann, A., Kania, M., Typke, D., Koster, A. J., and Baumeister, W. (1998) J. Struct. Biol., 121, 19–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Da Fonseca, P. C., and Morris, E. P. (2008) J. Biol. Chem., 283, 23305–23314.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Davy, A., Bello, P., Thierry-Mieg, N., Vaglio, P., Hitti, J., Doucette-Stamm, L., Thierry-Mieg, D., Reboul, J., Boulton, S., Walhout, A. J., Coux, O., and Vidal, M. (2001) EMBO Rep., 2, 821–828.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Uetz, P., Giot, L., Cagney, G., Mansfield, T. A., Judson, R. S., Knight, J. R., Lockshon, D., Narayan, V., Srinivasan, M., Pochart, P., Qureshi-Emili, A., Li, Y., Godwin, B., Conover, D., Kalbfleisch, T., Vijayadamodar, G., Yang, M., Johnston, M., Fields, S., and Rothberg, J. M. (2000) Nature, 403, 623–627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Cagney, G., Uetz, P., and Fields, S. (2001) Physiol. Genom., 7, 27–34.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ho, Y., Gruhler, A., Heilbut, A., Bader, G. D., Moore, L., Adams, S. L., Millar, A., Taylor, P., Bennett, K., Boutilier, K., Yang, L., Wolting, C., Donaldson, I., Schandorff, S., Shewnarane, J., Vo, M., Taggart, J., Goudreault, M., Muskat, B., Alfarano, C., Dewar, D., Lin, Z., Michalickova, K., Willems, A. R., Sassi, H., Nielsen, P. A., Rasmussen, K. J., Andersen, J. R., Johansen, L. E., Hansen, L. H., Jespersen, H., Podtelejnikov, A., Nielsen, E., Crawford, J., Poulsen, V., Sorensen, B. D., Matthiesen, J., Hendrickson, R. C., Gleeson, F., Pawson, T., Moran, M. F., Durocher, D., Mann, M., Hogue, C. W., Figeys, D., and Tyers, M. (2002) Nature, 415, 180–183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Santamaria, P. G., Finley, D., Ballesta, J. P., and Remacha, M. (2003) J. Biol. Chem., 278, 6687–6695.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Isono, E., Saito, N., Kamata, N., Saeki, Y., and Toh-e, A. (2005) J. Biol. Chem., 280, 6537–6547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sharon, M., Taverner, T., Ambroggio, X. I., Deshaies, R. J., and Robinson, C. V. (2006) PLoS Biol., 4, e267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Chen, C., Huang, C., Chen, S., Liang, J., Lin, W., Ke, G., Zhang, H., Wang, B., Huang, J., Han, Z., Ma, L., Huo, K., Yang, X., Yang, P., He, F., and Tao, T. (2008) Proteomics, 8, 508–520.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Kajava, A. V. (2002) J. Biol. Chem., 277, 49791–49798.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kajava, A. V., Gorbea, C., Ortega, J., Rechsteiner, M., and Steven, A. C. (2004) J. Struct. Biol., 146, 425–430.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Rosenzweig, R., and Glickman, M. H. (2008) Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol., 15, 218–220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Rubin, D. M., Glickman, M. H., Larsen, C. N., Dhruvakumar, S., and Finley, D. (1998) EMBO J., 17, 4909–4919.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kohler, A., Cascio, P., Leggett, D. S., Woo, K. M., Goldberg, A. L., and Finley, D. (2001) Mol. Cell, 7, 1143–1152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gillette, T. G., Kumar, B., Thompson, D., Slaughter, C. A., and DeMartino, G. N. (2008) J. Biol. Chem., 283, 31813–31822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ma, C. P., Slaughter, C. A., and DeMartino, G. N. (1992) J. Biol. Chem., 267, 10515–10523.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Rosenzweig, R., Osmulski, P. A., Gaczynska, M., and Glickman, M. H. (2008) Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol., 15, 573–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Baboshina, O. V., and Haas, A. L. (1996) J. Biol. Chem., 271, 2823–2831.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Fu, H., Sadis, S., Rubin, D. M., Glickman, M., van Nocker, S., Finley, D., and Vierstra, R. D. (1998) J. Biol. Chem., 273, 1970–1981.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Thrower, J. S., Hoffman, L., Rechsteiner, M., and Pickart, C. M. (2000) EMBO J., 19, 94–102.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Van Nocker, S., Sadis, S., Rubin, D. M., Glickman, M., Fu, H., Coux, O., Wefes, I., Finley, D., and Vierstra, R. D. (1996) Mol. Cell. Biol., 16, 6020–6028.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Elsasser, S., Chandler-Militello, D., Muller, B., Hanna, J., and Finley, D. (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 26817–26822.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Elsasser, S., and Finley, D. (2005) Nat. Cell Biol., 7, 742–749.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Verma, R., Oania, R., Graumann, J., and Deshaies, R. J. (2004) Cell, 118, 99–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Husnjak, K., Elsasser, S., Zhang, N., Chen, X., Randles, L., Shi, Y., Hofmann, K., Walters, K. J., Finley, D., and Dikic, I. (2008) Nature, 453, 481–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lupas, A., Baumeister, W., and Hofmann, K. (1997) Trends Biochem. Sci., 22, 195–196.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Braun, B. C., Glickman, M., Kraft, R., Dahlmann, B., Kloetzel, P. M., Finley, D., and Schmidt, M. (1999) Nat. Cell Biol., 1, 221–226.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Strickland, E., Hakala, K., Thomas, P. J., and DeMartino, G. N. (2000) J. Biol. Chem., 275, 5565–5572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Hershko, A., Leshinsky, E., Ganoth, D., and Heller, H. (1984) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 81, 1619–1623.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Yao, T., and Cohen, R. E. (2002) Nature, 419, 403–407.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Verma, R., Aravind, L., Oania, R., McDonald, W. H., Yates, J. R., 3rd, Koonin, E. V., and Deshaies, R. J. (2002) Science, 298, 611–615.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Amerik, A. Y., and Hochstrasser, M. (2004) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1695, 189–207.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Guterman, A., and Glickman, M. H. (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 1729–1738.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Papa, F. R., Amerik, A. Y., and Hochstrasser, M. (1999) Mol. Biol. Cell, 10, 741–756.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Eytan, E., Ganoth, D., Armon, T., and Hershko, A. (1989) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 86, 7751–7755.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Liu, C. W., Li, X., Thompson, D., Wooding, K., Chang, T. L., Tang, Z., Yu, H., Thomas, P. J., and DeMartino, G. N. (2006) Mol. Cell, 24, 39–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Isono, E., Nishihara, K., Saeki, Y., Yashiroda, H., Kamata, N., Ge, L., Ueda, T., Kikuchi, Y., Tanaka, K., Nakano, A., and Toh-e, A. (2007) Mol. Biol. Cell, 18, 569–580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Isono, E., Saeki, Y., Yokosawa, H., and Toh-e, A. (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 27168–27176.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kurucz, E., Ando, I., Sumegi, M., Holzl, H., Kapelari, B., Baumeister, W., and Udvardy, A. (2002) Biochem. J., 365, 527–536.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Babbitt, S. E., Kiss, A., Deffenbaugh, A. E., Chang, Y. H., Bailly, E., Erdjument-Bromage, H., Tempst, P., Buranda, T., Sklar, L. A., Baumler, J., Gogol, E., and Skowyra, D. (2005) Cell, 121, 553–565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kiss, P., Szabo, A., Hunyadi-Gulyas, E., Medzihradszky, K. F., Lipinszki, Z., Pal, M., and Udvardy, A. (2005) Biochem. J., 391, 301–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Leggett, D. S., Hanna, J., Borodovsky, A., Crosas, B., Schmidt, M., Baker, R. T., Walz, T., Ploegh, H., and Finley, D. (2002) Mol. Cell, 10, 495–507.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Schmidt, M., Hanna, J., Elsasser, S., and Finley, D. (2005) Biol. Chem., 386, 725–737.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Wang, X., Chen, C. F., Baker, P. R., Chen, P. L., Kaiser, P., and Huang, L. (2007) Biochemistry, 46, 3553–3565.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Imai, J., Maruya, M., Yashiroda, H., Yahara, I., and Tanaka, K. (2003) EMBO J., 22, 3557–3567.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Tone, Y., Tanahashi, N., Tanaka, K., Fujimuro, M., Yokosawa, H., and Toh-e, A. (2000) Gene, 243, 37–45.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Rechsteiner, M., and Hill, C. P. (2005) Trends Cell Biol., 15, 27–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Dubiel, W., Pratt, G., Ferrell, K., and Rechsteiner, M. (1992) J. Biol. Chem., 267, 22369–22377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Stohwasser, R., Salzmann, U., Giesebrecht, J., Kloetzel, P. M., and Holzhutter, H. G. (2000) Eur. J. Biochem., 267, 6221–6230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Groettrup, M., Soza, A., Eggers, M., Kuehn, L., Dick, T. P., Schild, H., Rammensee, H. G., Koszinowski, U. H., and Kloetzel, P. M. (1996) Nature, 381, 166–168.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Whitby, F. G., Masters, E. I., Kramer, L., Knowlton, J. R., Yao, Y., Wang, C. C., and Hill, C. P. (2000) Nature, 408, 115–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Ustrell, V., Hoffman, L., Pratt, G., and Rechsteiner, M. (2002) EMBO J., 21, 3516–3525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Schmidt, M., Haas, W., Crosas, B., Santamaria, P. G., Gygi, S. P., Walz, T., and Finley, D. (2005) Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol., 12, 294–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Iwanczyk, J., Sadre-Bazzaz, K., Ferrell, K., Kondrashkina, E., Formosa, T., Hill, C. P., and Ortega, J. (2006) J. Mol. Biol., 363, 648–659.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Gorbea, C., Goellner, G. M., Teter, K., Holmes, R. K., and Rechsteiner, M. (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 54849–54861.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Tanahashi, N., Kawahara, H., Murakami, Y., and Tanaka, K. (1999) Mol. Biol. Rep., 26, 3–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Zaiss, D. M., Standera, S., Kloetzel, P. M., and Sijts, A. J. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 99, 14344–14349.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Tanaka, E., Takagi Sawada, M., Morinaga, C., Yokosawa, H., and Sawada, H. (2000) Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 374, 181–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Sakai, N., Sawada, M. T., and Sawada, H. (2004) Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol., 36, 776–784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Wei, N., and Deng, X. W. (1992) Plant Cell, 4, 1507–1518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Schwechheimer, C. (2004) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1695, 45–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Deshaies, R. J. (1999) Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol., 15, 435–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Lyapina, S., Cope, G., Shevchenko, A., Serino, G., Tsuge, T., Zhou, C., Wolf, D. A., Wei, N., and Deshaies, R. J. (2001) Science, 292, 1382–1385.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Zhou, C., Wee, S., Rhee, E., Naumann, M., Dubiel, W., and Wolf, D. A. (2003) Mol. Cell, 11, 927–938.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Groisman, R., Polanowska, J., Kuraoka, I., Sawada, J., Saijo, M., Drapkin, R., Kisselev, A. F., Tanaka, K., and Nakatani, Y. (2003) Cell, 113, 357–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Liu, C., Powell, K. A., Mundt, K., Wu, L., Carr, A. M., and Caspari, T. (2003) Genes Dev., 17, 1130–1140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Seeger, M., Ferrell, K., Frank, R., and Dubiel, W. (1997) J. Biol. Chem., 272, 8145–8148.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Hu, Z., Zhang, Z., Doo, E., Coux, O., Goldberg, A. L., and Liang, T. J. (1999) J. Virol., 73, 7231–7240.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Guo, G. G., Gu, M., and Etlinger, J. D. (1994) J. Biol. Chem., 269, 12399–12402.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Grunberg-Etkovitz, N., Greenbaum, L., Grinblat, B., and Malik, Z. (2006) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1762, 819–827.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Boyer, S. N., Wazer, D. E., and Band, V. (1996) Cancer Res., 56, 4620–4624.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Gaczynska, M., Osmulski, P. A., Gao, Y., Post, M. J., and Simons, M. (2003) Biochemistry, 42, 8663–8670.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Koegl, M., Hoppe, T., Schlenker, S., Ulrich, H. D., Mayer, T. U., and Jentsch, S. (1999) Cell, 96, 635–644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Breitschopf, K., Bengal, E., Ziv, T., Admon, A., and Ciechanover, A. (1998) EMBO J., 17, 5964–5973.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Ben-Saadon, R., Fajerman, I., Ziv, T., Hellman, U., Schwartz, A. L., and Ciechanover, A. (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 41414–41421.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Cadwell, K., and Coscoy, L. (2005) Science, 309, 127–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    D’Andrea, A., and Pellman, D. (1998) Crit. Rev. Biochem. Mol. Biol., 33, 337–352.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Chung, C. H., and Baek, S. H. (1999) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 266, 633–640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Ha, B. H., and Kim, E. E. (2008) BMB Rep., 41, 435–443.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Catic, A., Sun, Z. Y., Ratner, D. M., Misaghi, S., Spooner, E., Samuelson, J., Wagner, G., and Ploegh, H. L. (2007) EMBO J., 26, 3474–3483.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Hicke, L., and Dunn, R. (2003) Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol., 19, 141–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Muratani, M., and Tansey, W. P. (2003) Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell. Biol., 4, 192–201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Hoege, C., Pfander, B., Moldovan, G. L., Pyrowolakis, G., and Jentsch, S. (2002) Nature, 419, 135–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Stelter, P., and Ulrich, H. D. (2003) Nature, 425, 188–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Gregory, R. C., Taniguchi, T., and D’Andrea, A. D. (2003) Semin. Cancer Biol., 13, 77–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Haglund, K., Di Fiore, P. P., and Dikic, I. (2003) Trends Biochem. Sci., 28, 598–603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Pickart, C. M., and Fushman, D. (2004) Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol., 8, 610–616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Varadan, R., Walker, O., Pickart, C., and Fushman, D. (2002) J. Mol. Biol., 324, 637–647.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Varadan, R., Assfalg, M., Haririnia, A., Raasi, S., Pickart, C., and Fushman, D. (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 7055–7063.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Hershko, A., and Ciechanover, A. (1998) Annu. Rev. Biochem., 67, 425–479.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Wu, C. J., Conze, D. B., Li, T., Srinivasula, S. M., and Ashwell, J. D. (2006) Nat. Cell Biol., 8, 398–406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Hofmann, R. M., and Pickart, C. M. (2001) J. Biol. Chem., 276, 27936–27943.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Peng, J., Schwartz, D., Elias, J. E., Thoreen, C. C., Cheng, D., Marsischky, G., Roelofs, J., Finley, D., and Gygi, S. P. (2003) Nat. Biotechnol., 21, 921–926.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Kim, I., and Rao, H. (2006) Sci. STKE, 2006, pe18.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Jentsch, S., and Pyrowolakis, G. (2000) Trends Cell Biol., 10, 335–342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Girdwood, D., Bumpass, D., Vaughan, O. A., Thain, A., Anderson, L. A., Snowden, A. W., Garcia-Wilson, E., Perkins, N. D., and Hay, R. T. (2003) Mol. Cell, 11, 1043–1054.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Seeler, J. S., and Dejean, A. (2003) Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell. Biol., 4, 690–699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Muller, S., Ledl, A., and Schmidt, D. (2004) Oncogene, 23, 1998–2008.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Meluh, P. B., and Koshland, D. (1995) Mol. Biol. Cell, 6, 793–807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Bohren, K. M., Nadkarni, V., Song, J. H., Gabbay, K. H., and Owerbach, D. (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 27233–27238.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Hochstrasser, M. (1998) Genes Dev., 12, 901–907.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Xirodimas, D. P., Saville, M. K., Bourdon, J. C., Hay, R. T., and Lane, D. P. (2004) Cell, 118, 83–97.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Korant, B. D., Blomstrom, D. C., Jonak, G. J., and Knight, E., Jr. (1984) J. Biol. Chem., 259, 14835–14839.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Malakhova, O. A., Yan, M., Malakhov, M. P., Yuan, Y., Ritchie, K. J., Kim, K. I., Peterson, L. F., Shuai, K., and Zhang, D. E. (2003) Genes Dev., 17, 455–460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Zhao, C., Denison, C., Huibregtse, J. M., Gygi, S., and Krug, R. M. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 102, 10200–10205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Tanida, I., Ueno, T., and Kominami, E. (2004) Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol., 36, 2503–2518.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Ohsumi, Y. (2001) Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell. Biol., 2, 211–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Raasi, S., Schmidtke, G., and Groettrup, M. (2001) J. Biol. Chem., 276, 35334–35343.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Komatsu, M., Chiba, T., Tatsumi, K., Iemura, S., Tanida, I., Okazaki, N., Ueno, T., Kominami, E., Natsume, T., and Tanaka, K. (2004) EMBO J., 23, 1977–1986.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Sasakawa, H., Sakata, E., Yamaguchi, Y., Komatsu, M., Tatsumi, K., Kominami, E., Tanaka, K., and Kato, K. (2006) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 343, 21–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Orlowski, M., and Wilk, S. (2003) Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 415, 1–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Li, X., Amazit, L., Long, W., Lonard, D. M., Monaco, J. J., and O’Malley, B. W. (2007) Mol. Cell, 26, 831–842.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Tofaris, G. K., Layfield, R., and Spillantini, M. G. (2001) FEBS Lett., 509, 22–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Lin, L., DeMartino, G. N., and Greene, W. C. (1998) Cell, 92, 819–828.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Bercovich, Z., Rosenberg-Hasson, Y., Ciechanover, A., and Kahana, C. (1989) J. Biol. Chem., 264, 15949–15952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Jin, Y., Lee, H., Zeng, S. X., Dai, M. S., and Lu, H. (2003) EMBO J., 22, 6365–6377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    David, D. C., Layfield, R., Serpell, L., Narain, Y., Goedert, M., and Spillantini, M. G. (2002) J. Neurochem., 83, 176–185.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Amici, M., Sagratini, D., Pettinari, A., Pucciarelli, S., Angeletti, M., and Eleuteri, A. M. (2004) Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 422, 168–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Ju, D., and Xie, Y. (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 23851–23854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Asher, G., Tsvetkov, P., Kahana, C., and Shaul, Y. (2005) Genes Dev., 19, 316–321.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Kong, X., Lin, Z., Liang, D., Fath, D., Sang, N., and Caro, J. (2006) Mol. Cell. Biol., 26, 2019–2028.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Ying, H., and Xiao, Z. X. (2006) Cell Cycle, 5, 506–508.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  198. 198.
    Moorthy, A. K., Savinova, O. V., Ho, J. Q., Wang, V. Y., Vu, D., and Ghosh, G. (2006) EMBO J., 25, 1945–1956.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Pande, A. H., Moe, D., Jamnadas, M., Tatulian, S. A., and Teter, K. (2006) Biochemistry, 45, 13734–13740.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  200. 200.
    Ito, T., Fujio, Y., Takahashi, K., and Azuma, J. (2007) J. Biol. Chem., 282, 1152–1160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Lim, S. K., and Gopalan, G. (2007) Biochem. J., 403, 119–127.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Voigt, A., Salzmann, U., Seifert, U., Dathe, M., Soza, A., Kloetzel, P. M., and Kuckelkorn, U. (2007) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 355, 549–554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Chen, C., Zhou, Z., Guo, P., and Dong, J. T. (2007) FEBS Lett., 581, 1124–1130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Yuksek, K., Chen, W. L., Chien, D., and Ou, J. H. (2009) J. Virol., 83, 612–621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Jariel-Encontre, I., Pariat, M., Martin, F., Carillo, S., Salvat, C., and Piechaczyk, M. (1995) J. Biol. Chem., 270, 11623–11627.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Tarcsa, E., Szymanska, G., Lecker, S., O’Connor, C. M., and Goldberg, A. L. (2000) J. Biol. Chem., 275, 20295–20301.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Benaroudj, N., Tarcsa, E., Cascio, P., and Goldberg, A. L. (2001) Biochimie, 83, 311–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Grune, T., Reinheckel, T., and Davies, K. J. (1997) FASEB J., 11, 526–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Fink, A. L. (2005) Curr. Opin. Struct. Biol., 15, 35–41.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Wright, P. E., and Dyson, H. J. (1999) J. Mol. Biol., 293, 321–331.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Davies, K. J. (2001) Biochimie, 83, 301–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Murakami, Y., Matsufuji, S., Kameji, T., Hayashi, S., Igarashi, K., Tamura, T., Tanaka, K., and Ichihara, A. (1992) Nature, 360, 597–599.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Jariel-Encontre, I., Bossis, G., and Piechaczyk, M. (2008) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1786, 153–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Zhang, M., Pickart, C. M., and Coffino, P. (2003) EMBO J., 22, 1488–1496.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Blagosklonny, M. V., Wu, G. S., Omura, S., and el-Deiry, W. S. (1996) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 227, 564–569.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Kim, G. Y., Mercer, S. E., Ewton, D. Z., Yan, Z., Jin, K., and Friedman, E. (2002) J. Biol. Chem., 277, 29792–29802.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Jascur, T., Brickner, H., Salles-Passador, I., Barbier, V., El Khissiin, A., Smith, B., Fotedar, R., and Fotedar, A. (2005) Mol. Cell, 17, 237–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Chen, X., Barton, L. F., Chi, Y., Clurman, B. E., and Roberts, J. M. (2007) Mol. Cell, 26, 843–852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Touitou, R., Richardson, J., Bose, S., Nakanishi, M., Rivett, J., and Allday, M. J. (2001) EMBO J., 20, 2367–2375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Kriwacki, R. W., Hengst, L., Tennant, L., Reed, S. I., and Wright, P. E. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 93, 11504–11509.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Vogelstein, B., Lane, D., and Levine, A. J. (2000) Nature, 408, 307–310.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Zur Hausen, H. (2000) J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 92, 690–698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Camus, S., Menendez, S., Cheok, C. F., Stevenson, L. F., Lain, S., and Lane, D. P. (2007) Oncogene, 26, 4059–4070.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Anwar, A., Dehn, D., Siegel, D., Kepa, J. K., Tang, L. J., Pietenpol, J. A., and Ross, D. (2003) J. Biol. Chem., 278, 10368–10373.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Asher, G., Reuven, N., and Shaul, Y. (2006) Bioessays, 28, 844–849.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Classon, M., and Harlow, E. (2002) Nat. Rev. Cancer, 2, 910–917.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Scheffner, M., and Whitaker, N. J. (2003) Semin. Cancer Biol., 13, 59–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Knight, J. S., Sharma, N., and Robertson, E. S. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 102, 18562–18566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Munakata, T., Nakamura, M., Liang, Y., Li, K., and Lemon, S. M. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 102, 18159–18164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  230. 230.
    Kalejta, R. F., Bechtel, J. T., and Shenk, T. (2003) Mol. Cell. Biol., 23, 1885–1895.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Sdek, P., Ying, H., Chang, D. L., Qiu, W., Zheng, H., Touitou, R., Allday, M. J., and Xiao, Z. X. (2005) Mol. Cell, 20, 699–708.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Uchida, C., Miwa, S., Kitagawa, K., Hattori, T., Isobe, T., Otani, S., Oda, T., Sugimura, H., Kamijo, T., Ookawa, K., Yasuda, H., and Kitagawa, M. (2005) EMBO J., 24, 160–169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Neumann, M., and Naumann, M. (2007) FASEB J., 21, 2642–2654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Coux, O., and Goldberg, A. L. (1998) J. Biol. Chem., 273, 8820–8828.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Beinke, S., Deka, J., Lang, V., Belich, M. P., Walker, P. A., Howell, S., Smerdon, S. J., Gamblin, S. J., and Ley, S. C. (2003) Mol. Cell. Biol., 23, 4739–4752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Li, Z., Zhang, J., Chen, D., and Shu, H. B. (2003) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 309, 980–985.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Zhang, J., Xu, L. G., Han, K. J., and Shu, H. B. (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 17819–17825.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Ferrier, R., Nougarede, R., Doucet, S., Kahn-Perles, B., Imbert, J., and Mathieu-Mahul, D. (1999) Oncogene, 18, 995–1005.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Lang, V., Janzen, J., Fischer, G. Z., Soneji, Y., Beinke, S., Salmeron, A., Allen, H., Hay, R. T., Ben-Neriah, Y., and Ley, S. C. (2003) Mol. Cell. Biol., 23, 402–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Skabkin, M. A., Liabin, D. N., and Ovchinnikov, L. P. (2006) Mol. Biol. (Moscow), 40, 620–633.Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    Stenina, O. I., Poptic, E. J., and DiCorleto, P. E. (2000) J. Clin. Invest., 106, 579–587.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Jurchott, K., Bergmann, S., Stein, U., Walther, W., Janz, M., Manni, I., Piaggio, G., Fietze, E., Dietel, M., and Royer, H. D. (2003) J. Biol. Chem., 278, 27988–27996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Lutz, M., Wempe, F., Bahr, I., Zopf, D., and von Melchner, H. (2006) FEBS Lett., 580, 3921–3930.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Chibi, M., Meyer, M., Skepu, A. G., Rees, D. J., Moolman-Smook, J. C., and Pugh, D. J. (2008) J. Mol. Biol., 384, 908–916.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Baugh, J. M., and Pilipenko, E. V. (2004) Mol. Cell, 16, 575–586.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Jackson, R. J. (2005) Biochem. Soc. Trans., 33, 1231–1241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Qin, X., and Sarnow, P. (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 13721–13728.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Konstantinova, I. M., Tsimokha, A. S., and Mittenberg, A. G. (2008) Int. Rev. Cell Mol. Biol., 267, 59–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Ma, J., Katz, E., and Belote, J. M. (2002) Insect Mol. Biol., 11, 627–639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Kawahara, H., Kasahara, M., Nishiyama, A., Ohsumi, K., Goto, T., Kishimoto, T., Saeki, Y., Yokosawa, H., Shimbara, N., Murata, S., Chiba, T., Suzuki, K., and Tanaka, K. (2000) EMBO J., 19, 4144–4153.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Xie, Y., and Varshavsky, A. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98, 3056–3061.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Ju, D., Wang, L., Mao, X., and Xie, Y. (2004) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 321, 51–57.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Kumatori, A., Tanaka, K., Inamura, N., Sone, S., Ogura, T., Matsumoto, T., Tachikawa, T., Shin, S., and Ichihara, A. (1990) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 87, 7071–7075.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  254. 254.
    Meiners, S., Heyken, D., Weller, A., Ludwig, A., Stangl, K., Kloetzel, P. M., and Kruger, E. (2003) J. Biol. Chem., 278, 21517–21525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Rivett, A. J., Palmer, A., and Knecht, E. (1992) J. Histochem. Cytochem., 40, 1165–1172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Wojcik, C., Benchaib, M., Lornage, J., Czyba, J. C., and Guerin, J. F. (2000) Mol. Hum. Reprod., 6, 331–336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    Wojcik, C., Benchaib, M., Lornage, J., Czyba, J. C., and Guerin, J. F. (2000) Int. J. Androl., 23, 169–177.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Lafarga, M., Fernandez, R., Mayo, I., Berciano, M. T., and Castano, J. G. (2002) Glia, 38, 313–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    Nurse, P. (2000) Cell, 100, 71–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Johnson, D. G., and Walker, C. L. (1999) Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 39, 295–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Nederlof, P. M., Wang, H. R., and Baumeister, W. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 92, 12060–12064.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Wang, H. R., Kania, M., Baumeister, W., and Nederlof, P. M. (1997) Eur. J. Cell Biol., 73, 105–113.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Sorokin, A. V., Kim, E. R., and Ovchinnikov, L. P. (2007) Biochemistry (Moscow), 72, 1439–1457.Google Scholar
  264. 264.
    Tanaka, K., Yoshimura, T., Tamura, T., Fujiwara, T., Kumatori, A., and Ichihara, A. (1990) FEBS Lett., 271, 41–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Benedict, C. M., Ren, L., and Clawson, G. A. (1995) Biochemistry, 34, 9587–9598.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  266. 266.
    Wada, M., Kosaka, M., Saito, S., Sano, T., Tanaka, K., and Ichihara, A. (1993) J. Lab. Clin. Med., 121, 215–223.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Feist, E., Brychcy, M., Hausdorf, G., Hoyer, B., Egerer, K., Dorner, T., Kuckelkorn, U., and Burmester, G. R. (2007) Ann. Rheum. Dis., 66, 5–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Jakob, C., Egerer, K., Liebisch, P., Turkmen, S., Zavrski, I., Kuckelkorn, U., Heider, U., Kaiser, M., Fleissner, C., Sterz, J., Kleeberg, L., Feist, E., Burmester, G. R., Kloetzel, P. M., and Sezer, O. (2007) Blood, 109, 2100–2105.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Zong, C., Gomes, A. V., Drews, O., Li, X., Young, G. W., Berhane, B., Qiao, X., French, S. W., Bardag-Gorce, F., and Ping, P. (2006) Circ. Res., 99, 372–380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Bose, S., Mason, G. G., and Rivett, A. J. (1999) Mol. Biol. Rep., 26, 11–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Bose, S., Brooks, P., Mason, G. G., and Rivett, A. J. (2001) Biochem. J., 353, 291–297.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Bose, S., Stratford, F. L., Broadfoot, K. I., Mason, G. G., and Rivett, A. J. (2004) Biochem. J., 378, 177–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Arendt, C. S., and Hochstrasser, M. (1999) EMBO J., 18, 3575–3585.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Demasi, M., Silva, G. M., and Netto, L. E. (2003) J. Biol. Chem., 278, 679–685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    Zhang, F., Su, K., Yang, X., Bowe, D. B., Paterson, A. J., and Kudlow, J. E. (2003) Cell, 115, 715–725.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Sun, X. M., Butterworth, M., MacFarlane, M., Dubiel, W., Ciechanover, A., and Cohen, G. M. (2004) Mol. Cell, 14, 81–93.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  277. 277.
    Medicherla, B., Kostova, Z., Schaefer, A., and Wolf, D. H. (2004) EMBO Rep., 5, 692–697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Schauber, C., Chen, L., Tongaonkar, P., Vega, I., Lambertson, D., Potts, W., and Madura, K. (1998) Nature, 391, 715–718.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Meyer, H. H., Wang, Y., and Warren, G. (2002) EMBO J., 21, 5645–5652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Chumakov, P. M. (2007) Biochemistry (Moscow), 72, 1399–1421.Google Scholar
  281. 281.
    Haupt, Y., Maya, R., Kazaz, A., and Oren, M. (1997) Nature, 387, 296–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Huibregtse, J. M., Scheffner, M., and Howley, P. M. (1993) Mol. Cell. Biol., 13, 775–784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Scheffner, M., Huibregtse, J. M., Vierstra, R. D., and Howley, P. M. (1993) Cell, 75, 495–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Dornan, D., Bheddah, S., Newton, K., Ince, W., Frantz, G. D., Dowd, P., Koeppen, H., Dixit, V. M., and French, D. M. (2004) Cancer Res., 64, 7226–7230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Leng, R. P., Lin, Y., Ma, W., Wu, H., Lemmers, B., Chung, S., Parant, J. M., Lozano, G., Hakem, R., and Benchimol, S. (2003) Cell, 112, 779–791.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Chen, D., Kon, N., Li, M., Zhang, W., Qin, J., and Gu, W. (2005) Cell, 121, 1071–1083.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Rajendra, R., Malegaonkar, D., Pungaliya, P., Marshall, H., Rasheed, Z., Brownell, J., Liu, L. F., Lutzker, S., Saleem, A., and Rubin, E. H. (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 36440–36444.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Esser, C., Scheffner, M., and Hohfeld, J. (2005) J. Biol. Chem., 280, 27443–27448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Oliner, J. D., Kinzler, K. W., Meltzer, P. S., George, D. L., and Vogelstein, B. (1992) Nature, 358, 80–83.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Forslund, A., Zeng, Z., Qin, L. X., Rosenberg, S., Ndubuisi, M., Pincas, H., Gerald, W., Notterman, D. A., Barany, F., and Paty, P. B. (2008) Mol. Cancer Res., 6, 205–211.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Bueso-Ramos, C. E., Manshouri, T., Haidar, M. A., Yang, Y., McCown, P., Ordonez, N., Glassman, A., Sneige, N., and Albitar, M. (1996) Breast Cancer Res. Treat., 37, 179–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Lianes, P., Orlow, I., Zhang, Z. F., Oliva, M. R., Sarkis, A. S., Reuter, V. E., and Cordon-Cardo, C. (1994) J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 86, 1325–1330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Lim, K. P., Sharifah, H., Lau, S. H., Teo, S. H., and Cheong, S. C. (2005) Oncol. Rep., 14, 963–968.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Lukas, J., Gao, D. Q., Keshmeshian, M., Wen, W. H., Tsao-Wei, D., Rosenberg, S., and Press, M. F. (2001) Cancer Res., 61, 3212–3219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Bartel, F., Taubert, H., and Harris, L. C. (2002) Cancer Cell, 2, 9–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  296. 296.
    Bond, G. L., Hu, W., Bond, E. E., Robins, H., Lutzker, S. G., Arva, N. C., Bargonetti, J., Bartel, F., Taubert, H., Wuerl, P., Onel, K., Yip, L., Hwang, S. J., Strong, L. C., Lozano, G., and Levine, A. J. (2004) Cell, 119, 591–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Alhopuro, P., Ylisaukko-Oja, S. K., Koskinen, W. J., Bono, P., Arola, J., Jarvinen, H. J., Mecklin, J. P., Atula, T., Kontio, R., Makitie, A. A., Suominen, S., Leivo, I., Vahteristo, P., Aaltonen, L. M., and Aaltonen, L. A. (2005) J. Med. Genet., 42, 694–698.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Sotamaa, K., Liyanarachchi, S., Mecklin, J. P., Jarvinen, H., Aaltonen, L. A., Peltomaki, P., and de la Chapelle, A. (2005) Clin. Cancer Res., 11, 6840–6844.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Zainuddin, N., Berglund, M., Wanders, A., Ren, Z. P., Amini, R. M., Lindell, M., Kanduri, M., Roos, G., Rosenquist, R., and Enblad, G. (2009) Leuk. Res., 33, 60–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  300. 300.
    Lind, H., Zienolddiny, S., Ekstrom, P. O., Skaug, V., and Haugen, A. (2006) Int. J. Cancer, 119, 718–721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  301. 301.
    Bond, G. L., Menin, C., Bertorelle, R., Alhopuro, P., Aaltonen, L. A., and Levine, A. J. (2006) J. Med. Genet., 43, 950–952.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  302. 302.
    Han, J. Y., Lim, H. S., Yoo, Y. K., Shin, E. S., Park, Y. H., Lee, S. Y., Lee, J. E., Lee, D. H., Kim, H. T., and Lee, J. S. (2007) Cancer, 110, 138–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  303. 303.
    Bougeard, G., Baert-Desurmont, S., Tournier, I., Vasseur, S., Martin, C., Brugieres, L., Chompret, A., Bressac-de Paillerets, B., Stoppa-Lyonnet, D., Bonaiti-Pellie, C., and Frebourg, T. (2006) J. Med. Genet., 43, 531–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  304. 304.
    Menin, C., Scaini, M. C., de Salvo, G. L., Biscuola, M., Quaggio, M., Esposito, G., Belluco, C., Montagna, M., Agata, S., D’Andrea, E., Nitti, D., Amadori, A., and Bertorelle, R. (2006) J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 98, 285–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  305. 305.
    Bouska, A., Lushnikova, T., Plaza, S., and Eischen, C. M. (2008) Mol. Cell. Biol., 28, 4862–4874.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  306. 306.
    Dawson, S., Apcher, S., Mee, M., Higashitsuji, H., Baker, R., Uhle, S., Dubiel, W., Fujita, J., and Mayer, R. J. (2002) J. Biol. Chem., 277, 10893–10902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  307. 307.
    Higashitsuji, H., Itoh, K., Sakurai, T., Nagao, T., Sumitomo, Y., Masuda, T., Dawson, S., Shimada, Y., Mayer, R. J., and Fujita, J. (2005) Cancer Cell, 8, 75–87.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  308. 308.
    Higashitsuji, H., Liu, Y., Mayer, R. J., and Fujita, J. (2005) Cell Cycle, 4, 1335–1337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  309. 309.
    Yoon, S. Y., Lee, Y., Kim, J. H., Chung, A. S., Joo, J. H., Kim, C. N., Kim, N. S., Choe, I. S., and Kim, J. W. (2005) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 326, 7–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  310. 310.
    Duan, W., Gao, L., Druhan, L. J., Zhu, W. G., Morrison, C., Otterson, G. A., and Villalona-Calero, M. A. (2004) J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 96, 1718–1721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  311. 311.
    Scheffner, M., Munger, K., Byrne, J. C., and Howley, P. M. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 88, 5523–5527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  312. 312.
    Scheffner, M., Werness, B. A., Huibregtse, J. M., Levine, A. J., and Howley, P. M. (1990) Cell, 63, 1129–1136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  313. 313.
    Huibregtse, J. M., Scheffner, M., and Howley, P. M. (1991) EMBO J., 10, 4129–4135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  314. 314.
    Thomas, M., Pim, D., and Banks, L. (1999) Oncogene, 18, 7690–7700.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  315. 315.
    Beer-Romero, P., Glass, S., and Rolfe, M. (1997) Oncogene, 14, 595–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  316. 316.
    Huibregtse, J. M., Scheffner, M., and Howley, P. M. (1993) Mol. Cell. Biol., 13, 4918–4927.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  317. 317.
    Sherr, C. J., and Roberts, J. M. (1999) Genes Dev., 13, 1501–1512.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  318. 318.
    Carrano, A. C., Eytan, E., Hershko, A., and Pagano, M. (1999) Nat. Cell Biol., 1, 193–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  319. 319.
    Sutterluty, H., Chatelain, E., Marti, A., Wirbelauer, C., Senften, M., Muller, U., and Krek, W. (1999) Nat. Cell Biol., 1, 207–214.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  320. 320.
    Ganoth, D., Bornstein, G., Ko, T. K., Larsen, B., Tyers, M., Pagano, M., and Hershko, A. (2001) Nat. Cell Biol., 3, 321–324.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  321. 321.
    Spruck, C., Strohmaier, H., Watson, M., Smith, A. P., Ryan, A., Krek, T. W., and Reed, S. I. (2001) Mol. Cell, 7, 639–650.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  322. 322.
    Lahav-Baratz, S., Ben-Izhak, O., Sabo, E., Ben-Eliezer, S., Lavie, O., Ishai, D., Ciechanover, A., and Dirnfeld, M. (2004) Mol. Hum. Reprod., 10, 567–572.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  323. 323.
    Slotky, M., Shapira, M., Ben-Izhak, O., Linn, S., Futerman, B., Tsalic, M., and Hershko, D. D. (2005) Breast Cancer Res., 7, R737–744.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  324. 324.
    Hershko, D. D., and Shapira, M. (2006) Cancer, 107, 668–675.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  325. 325.
    Kudo, Y., Kitajima, S., Sato, S., Miyauchi, M., Ogawa, I., and Takata, T. (2001) Cancer Res., 61, 7044–7047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  326. 326.
    Huang, H. Y., Kang, H. Y., Li, C. F., Eng, H. L., Chou, S. C., Lin, C. N., and Hsiung, C. Y. (2006) Clin. Cancer Res., 12, 487–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  327. 327.
    Inui, N., Kitagawa, K., Miwa, S., Hattori, T., Chida, K., Nakamura, H., and Kitagawa, M. (2003) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 303, 978–984.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  328. 328.
    Kitajima, S., Kudo, Y., Ogawa, I., Bashir, T., Kitagawa, M., Miyauchi, M., Pagano, M., and Takata, T. (2004) Am. J. Pathol., 165, 2147–2155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  329. 329.
    Yokoi, S., Yasui, K., Mori, M., Iizasa, T., Fujisawa, T., and Inazawa, J. (2004) Am. J. Pathol., 165, 175–180.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  330. 330.
    Yu, Z. K., Gervais, J. L., and Zhang, H. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 95, 11324–11329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  331. 331.
    Kamura, T., Hara, T., Kotoshiba, S., Yada, M., Ishida, N., Imaki, H., Hatakeyama, S., Nakayama, K., and Nakayama, K. I. (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 100, 10231–10236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  332. 332.
    Tedesco, D., Lukas, J., and Reed, S. I. (2002) Genes Dev., 16, 2946–2957.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  333. 333.
    Huang, H., Regan, K. M., Wang, F., Wang, D., Smith, D. I., van Deursen, J. M., and Tindall, D. J. (2005) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 102, 1649–1654.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  334. 334.
    Kim, W. Y., and Kaelin, W. G. (2004) J. Clin. Oncol., 22, 4991–5004.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  335. 335.
    Igarashi, H., Esumi, M., Ishida, H., and Okada, K. (2002) Cancer, 95, 47–53.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  336. 336.
    Stratmann, R., Krieg, M., Haas, R., and Plate, K. H. (1997) J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., 56, 1242–1252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  337. 337.
    Lisztwan, J., Imbert, G., Wirbelauer, C., Gstaiger, M., and Krek, W. (1999) Genes Dev., 13, 1822–1833.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  338. 338.
    Iwai, K., Yamanaka, K., Kamura, T., Minato, N., Conaway, R. C., Conaway, J. W., Klausner, R. D., and Pause, A. (1999) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 96, 12436–12441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  339. 339.
    Maxwell, P. H., Wiesener, M. S., Chang, G. W., Clifford, S. C., Vaux, E. C., Cockman, M. E., Wykoff, C. C., Pugh, C. W., Maher, E. R., and Ratcliffe, P. J. (1999) Nature, 399, 271–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  340. 340.
    Tanimoto, K., Makino, Y., Pereira, T., and Poellinger, L. (2000) EMBO J., 19, 4298–4309.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  341. 341.
    Cockman, M. E., Masson, N., Mole, D. R., Jaakkola, P., Chang, G. W., Clifford, S. C., Maher, E. R., Pugh, C. W., Ratcliffe, P. J., and Maxwell, P. H. (2000) J. Biol. Chem., 275, 25733–25741.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  342. 342.
    Duan, D. R., Pause, A., Burgess, W. H., Aso, T., Chen, D. Y., Garrett, K. P., Conaway, R. C., Conaway, J. W., Linehan, W. M., and Klausner, R. D. (1995) Science, 269, 1402–1406.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  343. 343.
    Pause, A., Lee, S., Worrell, R. A., Chen, D. Y., Burgess, W. H., Linehan, W. M., and Klausner, R. D. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 94, 2156–2161.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  344. 344.
    Kamura, T., Koepp, D. M., Conrad, M. N., Skowyra, D., Moreland, R. J., Iliopoulos, O., Lane, W. S., Kaelin, W. G., Jr., Elledge, S. J., Conaway, R. C., Harper, J. W., and Conaway, J. W. (1999) Science, 284, 657–661.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  345. 345.
    Patiar, S., and Harris, A. L. (2006) Endocr. Relat. Cancer, 13,Suppl. 1, S61–75.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  346. 346.
    Huang, L. E., Gu, J., Schau, M., and Bunn, H. F. (1998) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 95, 7987–7992.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  347. 347.
    Bruick, R. K., and McKnight, S. L. (2001) Science, 294, 1337–1340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  348. 348.
    Ivan, M., Kondo, K., Yang, H., Kim, W., Valiando, J., Ohh, M., Salic, A., Asara, J. M., Lane, W. S., and Kaelin, W. G., Jr. (2001) Science, 292, 464–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  349. 349.
    Jaakkola, P., Mole, D. R., Tian, Y. M., Wilson, M. I., Gielbert, J., Gaskell, S. J., Kriegsheim, A., Hebestreit, H. F., Mukherji, M., Schofield, C. J., Maxwell, P. H., Pugh, C. W., and Ratcliffe, P. J. (2001) Science, 292, 468–472.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  350. 350.
    Masson, N., Willam, C., Maxwell, P. H., Pugh, C. W., and Ratcliffe, P. J. (2001) EMBO J., 20, 5197–5206.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  351. 351.
    Yu, F., White, S. B., Zhao, Q., and Lee, F. S. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98, 9630–9635.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  352. 352.
    Gayther, S. A., Russell, P., Harrington, P., Antoniou, A. C., Easton, D. F., and Ponder, B. A. (1999) Am. J. Hum. Genet., 65, 1021–1029.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  353. 353.
    Staff, S., Isola, J., and Tanner, M. (2003) Cancer Res., 63, 4978–4983.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  354. 354.
    Sorlie, T., Tibshirani, R., Parker, J., Hastie, T., Marron, J. S., Nobel, A., Deng, S., Johnsen, H., Pesich, R., Geisler, S., Demeter, J., Perou, C. M., Lonning, P. E., Brown, P. O., Borresen-Dale, A. L., and Botstein, D. (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 100, 8418–8423.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  355. 355.
    Turner, N. C., Reis-Filho, J. S., Russell, A. M., Springall, R. J., Ryder, K., Steele, D., Savage, K., Gillett, C. E., Schmitt, F. C., Ashworth, A., and Tutt, A. N. (2007) Oncogene, 26, 2126–2132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  356. 356.
    Wu, L. C., Wang, Z. W., Tsan, J. T., Spillman, M. A., Phung, A., Xu, X. L., Yang, M. C., Hwang, L. Y., Bowcock, A. M., and Baer, R. (1996) Nat. Genet., 14, 430–440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  357. 357.
    Thai, T. H., Du, F., Tsan, J. T., Jin, Y., Phung, A., Spillman, M. A., Massa, H. F., Muller, C. Y., Ashfaq, R., Mathis, J. M., Miller, D. S., Trask, B. J., Baer, R., and Bowcock, A. M. (1998) Hum. Mol. Genet., 7, 195–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  358. 358.
    Hashizume, R., Fukuda, M., Maeda, I., Nishikawa, H., Oyake, D., Yabuki, Y., Ogata, H., and Ohta, T. (2001) J. Biol. Chem., 276, 14537–14540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  359. 359.
    Chen, A., Kleiman, F. E., Manley, J. L., Ouchi, T., and Pan, Z. Q. (2002) J. Biol. Chem., 277, 22085–22092.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  360. 360.
    Mallery, D. L., Vandenberg, C. J., and Hiom, K. (2002) EMBO J., 21, 6755–6762.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  361. 361.
    Joukov, V., Chen, J., Fox, E. A., Green, J. B., and Livingston, D. M. (2001) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 98, 12078–12083.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  362. 362.
    Baer, R., and Ludwig, T. (2002) Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev., 12, 86–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  363. 363.
    Shakya, R., Szabolcs, M., McCarthy, E., Ospina, E., Basso, K., Nandula, S., Murty, V., Baer, R., and Ludwig, T. (2008) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 105, 7040–7045.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  364. 364.
    Xia, Y., Pao, G. M., Chen, H. W., Verma, I. M., and Hunter, T. (2003) J. Biol. Chem., 278, 5255–5263.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  365. 365.
    Starita, L. M., Machida, Y., Sankaran, S., Elias, J. E., Griffin, K., Schlegel, B. P., Gygi, S. P., and Parvin, J. D. (2004) Mol. Cell. Biol., 24, 8457–8466.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  366. 366.
    Starita, L. M., Horwitz, A. A., Keogh, M. C., Ishioka, C., Parvin, J. D., and Chiba, N. (2005) J. Biol. Chem., 280, 24498–24505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  367. 367.
    Eakin, C. M., Maccoss, M. J., Finney, G. L., and Klevit, R. E. (2007) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104, 5794–5799.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  368. 368.
    Starita, L. M., and Parvin, J. D. (2006) Cancer Biol. Ther., 5, 137–141.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  369. 369.
    Reinstein, E., and Ciechanover, A. (2006) Ann. Intern. Med., 145, 676–684.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  370. 370.
    Debigare, R., and Price, S. R. (2003) Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol., 285, F1–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  371. 371.
    Snyder, P. M. (2005) Endocrinology, 146, 5079–5085.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  372. 372.
    Shimkets, R. A., Warnock, D. G., Bositis, C. M., Nelson-Williams, C., Hansson, J. H., Schambelan, M., Gill, J. R., Jr., Ulick, S., Milora, R. V., Findling, J. W., et al. (1994) Cell, 79, 407–414.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  373. 373.
    Firsov, D., Schild, L., Gautschi, I., Merillat, A. M., Schneeberger, E., and Rossier, B. C. (1996) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 93, 15370–15375.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  374. 374.
    Schild, L., Lu, Y., Gautschi, I., Schneeberger, E., Lifton, R. P., and Rossier, B. C. (1996) EMBO J., 15, 2381–2387.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  375. 375.
    Hansson, J. H., Schild, L., Lu, Y., Wilson, T. A., Gautschi, I., Shimkets, R., Nelson-Williams, C., Rossier, B. C., and Lifton, R. P. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 92, 11495–11499.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  376. 376.
    Tamura, H., Schild, L., Enomoto, N., Matsui, N., Marumo, F., and Rossier, B. C. (1996) J. Clin. Invest., 97, 1780–1784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  377. 377.
    Inoue, J., Iwaoka, T., Tokunaga, H., Takamune, K., Naomi, S., Araki, M., Takahama, K., Yamaguchi, K., and Tomita, K. (1998) J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 83, 2210–2213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  378. 378.
    Furuhashi, M., Kitamura, K., Adachi, M., Miyoshi, T., Wakida, N., Ura, N., Shikano, Y., Shinshi, Y., Sakamoto, K., Hayashi, M., Satoh, N., Nishitani, T., Tomita, K., and Shimamoto, K. (2005) J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 90, 340–344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  379. 379.
    Staub, O., Dho, S., Henry, P., Correa, J., Ishikawa, T., McGlade, J., and Rotin, D. (1996) EMBO J., 15, 2371–2380.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  380. 380.
    Staub, O., Gautschi, I., Ishikawa, T., Breitschopf, K., Ciechanover, A., Schild, L., and Rotin, D. (1997) EMBO J., 16, 6325–6336.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  381. 381.
    Goulet, C. C., Volk, K. A., Adams, C. M., Prince, L. S., Stokes, J. B., and Snyder, P. M. (1998) J. Biol. Chem., 273, 30012–30017.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  382. 382.
    Abriel, H., Loffing, J., Rebhun, J. F., Pratt, J. H., Schild, L., Horisberger, J. D., Rotin, D., and Staub, O. (1999) J. Clin. Invest., 103, 667–673.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  383. 383.
    Harvey, K. F., Dinudom, A., Cook, D. I., and Kumar, S. (2001) J. Biol. Chem., 276, 8597–8601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  384. 384.
    Snyder, P. M., Steines, J. C., and Olson, D. R. (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 5042–5046.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  385. 385.
    Zhou, R., Patel, S. V., and Snyder, P. M. (2007) J. Biol. Chem., 282, 20207–20212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  386. 386.
    Wiemuth, D., Ke, Y., Rohlfs, M., and McDonald, F. J. (2007) Biochem. J., 405, 147–155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  387. 387.
    Knight, K. K., Olson, D. R., Zhou, R., and Snyder, P. M. (2006) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 103, 2805–2808.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  388. 388.
    Sieradzan, K. A., Mechan, A. O., Jones, L., Wanker, E. E., Nukina, N., and Mann, D. M. (1999) Exp. Neurol., 156, 92–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  389. 389.
    Ii, K., Ito, H., Tanaka, K., and Hirano, A. (1997) J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol., 56, 125–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  390. 390.
    Kuzuhara, S., Mori, H., Izumiyama, N., Yoshimura, M., and Ihara, Y. (1988) Acta Neuropathol., 75, 345–353.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  391. 391.
    Ciechanover, A., and Brundin, P. (2003) Neuron, 40, 427–446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  392. 392.
    Sawada, H., Kohno, R., Kihara, T., Izumi, Y., Sakka, N., Ibi, M., Nakanishi, M., Nakamizo, T., Yamakawa, K., Shibasaki, H., Yamamoto, N., Akaike, A., Inden, M., Kitamura, Y., Taniguchi, T., and Shimohama, S. (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 10710–10719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  393. 393.
    Rideout, H. J., Larsen, K. E., Sulzer, D., and Stefanis, L. (2001) J. Neurochem., 78, 899–908.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  394. 394.
    Sun, F., Anantharam, V., Zhang, D., Latchoumycandane, C., Kanthasamy, A., and Kanthasamy, A. G. (2006) Neurotoxicology, 27, 807–815.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  395. 395.
    McNaught, K. S., and Jenner, P. (2001) Neurosci. Lett., 297, 191–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  396. 396.
    Bence, N. F., Sampat, R. M., and Kopito, R. R. (2001) Science, 292, 1552–1555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  397. 397.
    Zhang, N. Y., Tang, Z., and Liu, C. W. (2008) J. Biol. Chem., 283, 20288–20298.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  398. 398.
    Emmanouilidou, E., Stefanis, L., and Vekrellis, K. (2008) Neurobiol. Aging, Epub ahead of print, DOI: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2008.07.008.Google Scholar
  399. 399.
    Polymeropoulos, M. H., Lavedan, C., Leroy, E., Ide, S. E., Dehejia, A., Dutra, A., Pike, B., Root, H., Rubenstein, J., Boyer, R., Stenroos, E. S., Chandrasekharappa, S., Athanassiadou, A., Papapetropoulos, T., Johnson, W. G., Lazzarini, A. M., Duvoisin, R. C., Di Iorio, G., Golbe, L. I., and Nussbaum, R. L. (1997) Science, 276, 2045–2047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  400. 400.
    Kitada, T., Asakawa, S., Hattori, N., Matsumine, H., Yamamura, Y., Minoshima, S., Yokochi, M., Mizuno, Y., and Shimizu, N. (1998) Nature, 392, 605–608.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  401. 401.
    Liu, Y., Fallon, L., Lashuel, H. A., Liu, Z., and Lansbury, P. T., Jr. (2002) Cell, 111, 209–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  402. 402.
    Valente, E. M., Abou-Sleiman, P. M., Caputo, V., Muqit, M. M., Harvey, K., Gispert, S., Ali, Z., Del Turco, D., Bentivoglio, A. R., Healy, D. G., Albanese, A., Nussbaum, R., Gonzalez-Maldonado, R., Deller, T., Salvi, S., Cortelli, P., Gilks, W. P., Latchman, D. S., Harvey, R. J., Dallapiccola, B., Auburger, G., and Wood, N. W. (2004) Science, 304, 1158–1160.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  403. 403.
    Bonifati, V., Rizzu, P., van Baren, M. J., Schaap, O., Breedveld, G. J., Krieger, E., Dekker, M. C., Squitieri, F., Ibanez, P., Joosse, M., van Dongen, J. W., Vanacore, N., van Swieten, J. C., Brice, A., Meco, G., van Duijn, C. M., Oostra, B. A., and Heutink, P. (2003) Science, 299, 256–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  404. 404.
    Zhang, Y., Gao, J., Chung, K. K., Huang, H., Dawson, V. L., and Dawson, T. M. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97, 13354–13359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  405. 405.
    Chung, K. K., Zhang, Y., Lim, K. L., Tanaka, Y., Huang, H., Gao, J., Ross, C. A., Dawson, V. L., and Dawson, T. M. (2001) Nat. Med., 7, 1144–1150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  406. 406.
    Shimura, H., Schlossmacher, M. G., Hattori, N., Frosch, M. P., Trockenbacher, A., Schneider, R., Mizuno, Y., Kosik, K. S., and Selkoe, D. J. (2001) Science, 293, 263–269.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  407. 407.
    Sakata, E., Yamaguchi, Y., Kurimoto, E., Kikuchi, J., Yokoyama, S., Yamada, S., Kawahara, H., Yokosawa, H., Hattori, N., Mizuno, Y., Tanaka, K., and Kato, K. (2003) EMBO Rep., 4, 301–306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  408. 408.
    Imai, Y., Soda, M., Inoue, H., Hattori, N., Mizuno, Y., and Takahashi, R. (2001) Cell, 105, 891–902.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  409. 409.
    Wiertz, E. J., Jones, T. R., Sun, L., Bogyo, M., Geuze, H. J., and Ploegh, H. L. (1996) Cell, 84, 769–779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  410. 410.
    Kikkert, M., Hassink, G., Barel, M., Hirsch, C., van der Wal, F. J., and Wiertz, E. (2001) Biochem. J., 358, 369–377.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  411. 411.
    Shamu, C. E., Flierman, D., Ploegh, H. L., Rapoport, T. A., and Chau, V. (2001) Mol. Biol. Cell, 12, 2546–2555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  412. 412.
    Furman, M. H., Loureiro, J., Ploegh, H. L., and Tortorella, D. (2003) J. Biol. Chem., 278, 34804–34811.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  413. 413.
    Hassink, G. C., Barel, M. T., van Voorden, S. B., Kikkert, M., and Wiertz, E. J. (2006) J. Biol. Chem., 281, 30063–30071.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  414. 414.
    Tirosh, B., Iwakoshi, N. N., Lilley, B. N., Lee, A. H., Glimcher, L. H., and Ploegh, H. L. (2005) J. Virol., 79, 2768–2779.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  415. 415.
    Barel, M. T., Hassink, G. C., van Voorden, S., and Wiertz, E. J. (2006) Mol. Immunol., 43, 1258–1266.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  416. 416.
    Khan, S., Zimmermann, A., Basler, M., Groettrup, M., and Hengel, H. (2004) J. Virol., 78, 1831–1842.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  417. 417.
    Coscoy, L., and Ganem, D. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97, 8051–8056.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  418. 418.
    Coscoy, L., Sanchez, D. J., and Ganem, D. (2001) J. Cell Biol., 155, 1265–1273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  419. 419.
    Boname, J. M., and Stevenson, P. G. (2001) Immunity, 15, 627–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  420. 420.
    Coscoy, L., and Ganem, D. (2001) J. Clin. Invest., 107, 1599–1606.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  421. 421.
    Levitskaya, J., Coram, M., Levitsky, V., Imreh, S., Steigerwald-Mullen, P. M., Klein, G., Kurilla, M. G., and Masucci, M. G. (1995) Nature, 375, 685–688.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  422. 422.
    Levitskaya, J., Sharipo, A., Leonchiks, A., Ciechanover, A., and Masucci, M. G. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 94, 12616–12621.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  423. 423.
    Zhang, M., and Coffino, P. (2004) J. Biol. Chem., 279, 8635–8641.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  424. 424.
    Heessen, S., Leonchiks, A., Issaeva, N., Sharipo, A., Selivanova, G., Masucci, M. G., and Dantuma, N. P. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 99, 1532–1537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  425. 425.
    Andrejeva, J., Young, D. F., Goodbourn, S., and Randall, R. E. (2002) J. Virol., 76, 2159–2167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  426. 426.
    Ulane, C. M., Rodriguez, J. J., Parisien, J. P., and Horvath, C. M. (2003) J. Virol., 77, 6385–6393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  427. 427.
    Ulane, C. M., Kentsis, A., Cruz, C. D., Parisien, J. P., Schneider, K. L., and Horvath, C. M. (2005) J. Virol., 79, 10180–10189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  428. 428.
    Khu, Y. L., Tan, Y. J., Lim, S. G., Hong, W., and Goh, P. Y. (2004) Biochem. J., 384, 401–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  429. 429.
    Van Waes, C. (2007) Clin. Cancer Res., 13, 1076–1082.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  430. 430.
    Egerer, K., Kuckelkorn, U., Rudolph, P. E., Ruckert, J. C., Dorner, T., Burmester, G. R., Kloetzel, P. M., and Feist, E. (2002) J. Rheumatol., 29, 2045–2052.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  431. 431.
    Lavabre-Bertrand, T., Henry, L., Carillo, S., Guiraud, I., Ouali, A., Dutaud, D., Aubry, L., Rossi, J. F., and Bureau, J. P. (2001) Cancer, 92, 2493–2500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  432. 432.
    Feist, E., Dorner, T., Kuckelkorn, U., Schmidtke, G., Micheel, B., Hiepe, F., Burmester, G. R., and Kloetzel, P. M. (1996) J. Exp. Med., 184, 1313–1318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  433. 433.
    Feist, E., Kuckelkorn, U., Dorner, T., Donitz, H., Scheffler, S., Hiepe, F., Kloetzel, P. M., and Burmester, G. R. (1999) Arthritis Rheum., 42, 697–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  434. 434.
    Mayo, I., Arribas, J., Villoslada, P., Alvarez DoForno, R., Rodriguez-Vilarino, S., Montalban, X., De Sagarra, M. R., and Castano, J. G. (2002) Brain, 125, 2658–2667.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  435. 435.
    Matsushita, M., Takasaki, Y., Takeuchi, K., Yamada, H., Matsudaira, R., and Hashimoto, H. (2004) J. Rheumatol., 31, 252–259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  436. 436.
    Brychcy, M., Kuckelkorn, U., Hausdorf, G., Egerer, K., Kloetzel, P. M., Burmester, G. R., and Feist, E. (2006) Arthritis Rheum., 54, 2175–2183.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  437. 437.
    Li, B., Tournier, C., Davis, R. J., and Flavell, R. A. (1999) EMBO J., 18, 420–432.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  438. 438.
    Hartenstein, B., Teurich, S., Hess, J., Schenkel, J., Schorpp-Kistner, M., and Angel, P. (2002) EMBO J., 21, 6321–6329.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  439. 439.
    Gao, M., Labuda, T., Xia, Y., Gallagher, E., Fang, D., Liu, Y. C., and Karin, M. (2004) Science, 306, 271–275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  440. 440.
    Venuprasad, K., Elly, C., Gao, M., Salek-Ardakani, S., Harada, Y., Luo, J. L., Yang, C., Croft, M., Inoue, K., Karin, M., and Liu, Y. C. (2006) J. Clin. Invest., 116, 1117–1126.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  441. 441.
    Tsao, P. W., Suzuki, T., Totsuka, R., Murata, T., Takagi, T., Ohmachi, Y., Fujimura, H., and Takata, I. (1997) Clin. Immunol. Immunopathol., 83, 173–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  442. 442.
    Firestein, G. S. (2004) Arthritis Rheum., 50, 2381–2386.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  443. 443.
    Kisselev, A. F., and Goldberg, A. L. (2001) Chem. Biol., 8, 739–758.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  444. 444.
    An, B., Goldfarb, R. H., Siman, R., and Dou, Q. P. (1998) Cell Death Differ., 5, 1062–1075.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  445. 445.
    Drexler, H. C., Risau, W., and Konerding, M. A. (2000) FASEB J., 14, 65–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  446. 446.
    Chen, L., Smith, L., Wang, Z., and Smith, J. B. (2003) Mol. Pharmacol., 64, 334–345.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  447. 447.
    Fribley, A., and Wang, C. Y. (2006) Cancer Biol. Ther., 5, 745–748.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  448. 448.
    Roccaro, A. M., Hideshima, T., Raje, N., Kumar, S., Ishitsuka, K., Yasui, H., Shiraishi, N., Ribatti, D., Nico, B., Vacca, A., Dammacco, F., Richardson, P. G., and Anderson, K. C. (2006) Cancer Res., 66, 184–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  449. 449.
    Adams, J., Palombella, V. J., Sausville, E. A., Johnson, J., Destree, A., Lazarus, D. D., Maas, J., Pien, C. S., Prakash, S., and Elliott, P. J. (1999) Cancer Res., 59, 2615–2622.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  450. 450.
    Teicher, B. A., Ara, G., Herbst, R., Palombella, V. J., and Adams, J. (1999) Clin. Cancer Res., 5, 2638–2645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  451. 451.
    Adams, J. (2002) Oncologist, 7, 9–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  452. 452.
    Maki, R. G., Kraft, A. S., Scheu, K., Yamada, J., Wadler, S., Antonescu, C. R., Wright, J. J., and Schwartz, G. K. (2005) Cancer, 103, 1431–1438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  453. 453.
    Markovic, S. N., Geyer, S. M., Dawkins, F., Sharfman, W., Albertini, M., Maples, W., Fracasso, P. M., Fitch, T., Lorusso, P., Adjei, A. A., and Erlichman, C. (2005) Cancer, 103, 2584–2589.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  454. 454.
    Richardson, P. G., Barlogie, B., Berenson, J., Singhal, S., Jagannath, S., Irwin, D., Rajkumar, S. V., Srkalovic, G., Alsina, M., Alexanian, R., Siegel, D., Orlowski, R. Z., Kuter, D., Limentani, S. A., Lee, S., Hideshima, T., Esseltine, D. L., Kauffman, M., Adams, J., Schenkein, D. P., and Anderson, K. C. (2003) N. Engl. J. Med., 348, 2609–2617.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  455. 455.
    Ludwig, H., Khayat, D., Giaccone, G., and Facon, T. (2005) Cancer, 104, 1794–1807.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  456. 456.
    Blade, J., Cibeira, M. T., and Rosinol, L. (2005) Acta Oncol., 44, 440–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  457. 457.
    Feling, R. H., Buchanan, G. O., Mincer, T. J., Kauffman, C. A., Jensen, P. R., and Fenical, W. (2003) Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl., 42, 355–357.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  458. 458.
    Ahn, K. S., Sethi, G., Chao, T. H., Neuteboom, S. T., Chaturvedi, M. M., Palladino, M. A., Younes, A., and Aggarwal, B. B. (2007) Blood, 110, 2286–2295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  459. 459.
    Ruiz, S., Krupnik, Y., Keating, M., Chandra, J., Palladino, M., and McConkey, D. (2006) Mol. Cancer Ther., 5, 1836–1843.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  460. 460.
    Chauhan, D., Catley, L., Li, G., Podar, K., Hideshima, T., Velankar, M., Mitsiades, C., Mitsiades, N., Yasui, H., Letai, A., Ovaa, H., Berkers, C., Nicholson, B., Chao, T. H., Neuteboom, S. T., Richardson, P., Palladino, M. A., and Anderson, K. C. (2005) Cancer Cell, 8, 407–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  461. 461.
    Yaron, A., Gonen, H., Alkalay, I., Hatzubai, A., Jung, S., Beyth, S., Mercurio, F., Manning, A. M., Ciechanover, A., and Ben-Neriah, Y. (1997) EMBO J., 16, 6486–6494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  462. 462.
    Yang, Y., Ludwig, R. L., Jensen, J. P., Pierre, S. A., Medaglia, M. V., Davydov, I. V., Safiran, Y. J., Oberoi, P., Kenten, J. H., Phillips, A. C., Weissman, A. M., and Vousden, K. H. (2005) Cancer Cell, 7, 547–559.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  463. 463.
    Vassilev, L. T., Vu, B. T., Graves, B., Carvajal, D., Podlaski, F., Filipovic, Z., Kong, N., Kammlott, U., Lukacs, C., Klein, C., Fotouhi, N., and Liu, E. A. (2004) Science, 303, 844–848.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  464. 464.
    LaRusch, G. A., Jackson, M. W., Dunbar, J. D., Warren, R. S., Donner, D. B., and Mayo, L. D. (2007) Cancer Res., 67, 450–454.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  465. 465.
    Ambrosini, G., Sambol, E. B., Carvajal, D., Vassilev, L. T., Singer, S., and Schwartz, G. K. (2007) Oncogene, 26, 3473–3481.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  466. 466.
    Issaeva, N., Bozko, P., Enge, M., Protopopova, M., Verhoef, L. G., Masucci, M., Pramanik, A., and Selivanova, G. (2004) Nat. Med., 10, 1321–1328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  467. 467.
    Ding, K., Lu, Y., Nikolovska-Coleska, Z., Wang, G., Qiu, S., Shangary, S., Gao, W., Qin, D., Stuckey, J., Krajewski, K., Roller, P. P., and Wang, S. (2006) J. Med. Chem., 49, 3432–3435.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  468. 468.
    Jones, R. J., Chen, Q., Voorhees, P. M., Young, K. H., Bruey-Sedano, N., Yang, D., and Orlowski, R. Z. (2008) Clin. Cancer Res., 14, 5416–5425.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  469. 469.
    Butz, K., Denk, C., Ullmann, A., Scheffner, M., and Hoppe-Seyler, F. (2000) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 97, 6693–6697.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  470. 470.
    Chen, Q., Xie, W., Kuhn, D. J., Voorhees, P. M., Lopez-Girona, A., Mendy, D., Corral, L. G., Krenitsky, V. P., Xu, W., Moutouh-de Parseval, L., Webb, D. R., Mercurio, F., Nakayama, K. I., Nakayama, K., and Orlowski, R. Z. (2008) Blood, 111, 4690–4699.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  471. 471.
    Harris, J. R. (1968) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 150, 534–537.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  472. 472.
    DeMartino, G. N., and Goldberg, A. L. (1979) J. Biol. Chem., 254, 3712–3715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  473. 473.
    Wilk, S., and Orlowski, M. (1980) J. Neurochem., 35, 1172–1182.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  474. 474.
    Hase, J., Kobashi, K., Nakai, N., Mitsui, K., Iwata, K., and Takadera, T. (1980) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 611, 205–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  475. 475.
    Kleinschmidt, J. A., Hugle, B., Grund, C., and Franke, W. W. (1983) Eur. J. Cell Biol., 32, 143–156.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  476. 476.
    Schmid, H. P., Akhayat, O., Martins De Sa, C., Puvion, F., Koehler, K., and Scherrer, K. (1984) EMBO J., 3, 29–34.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  477. 477.
    Kloetzel, P. M., Falkenburg, P. E., Hossl, P., and Glatzer, K. H. (1987) Exp. Cell Res., 170, 204–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  478. 478.
    Arrigo, A. P., Tanaka, K., Goldberg, A. L., and Welch, W. J. (1988) Nature, 331, 192–194.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. V. Sorokin
    • 1
    Email author
  • E. R. Kim
    • 1
  • L. P. Ovchinnikov
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Protein ResearchRussian Academy of SciencesPushchino, Moscow RegionRussia

Personalised recommendations