Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 74, Issue 9, pp 939–944 | Cite as

Fundamental taboos of biology

  • E. D. SverdlovEmail author


This paper formulates some taboos relating to living systems and cognition of these systems: in nature, there exist no two identical living complex multicellular organisms; there is no way to create an exact copy of a multicellular organism; there is no way to obtain two identical clones of a unicellular organism if they contain a sufficiently large number of cells; based on comparing present-day organisms, it is impossible to restore the structure of the first living cell and the processes that have led to its emergence; it is impossible to create a living cell from its separate simple constituents; the mechanisms determining cell vitality are essentially incognizable.

Key words

biology general laws taboos prohibitions 


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© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Molecular GeneticsRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia

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