Biochemistry (Moscow)

, Volume 74, Issue 3, pp 235–249 | Cite as

Ganglioside GM3 and its biological functions

  • N. V. Prokazova
  • N. N. Samovilova
  • E. V. Gracheva
  • N. K. Golovanova
Review

Abstract

Metabolism, topology, and possible mechanisms for regulation of the ganglioside GM3 content in the cell are reviewed. Under consideration are biological functions of GM3, such as involvement in cell differentiation, proliferation, oncogenesis, and apoptosis.

Key words

ganglioside GM3 GM3 synthase metabolism cell differentiation proliferation oncogenesis apoptosis 

Abbreviations

CDK

cyclin-dependent kinase

Cer

ceramide

CRE

cAMP-responsive element

CREB

CRE-binding protein

DIM

detergent-insoluble material

EGF

epidermal growth factor

ERK

extracellularly regulated protein kinase

FAK

focal adhesion kinase

FGF

fibroblast growth factor

Gal

galactose

GEM

ganglioside-enriched microdomains

Glc

glucose

GPI

glycosyl phosphatidyl inositol

LacCer

lactosylceramide

MAPK

mitogen-activated protein kinase

Neu3

plasma membrane sialidase

NeuAc (SA)

N-acetylneuraminic (sialic) acid

PDGF

platelet-derived growth factor

PDMP

D-1-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol

PI3K

phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase

PKA, PKB/Akt, and PKC

protein kinase A, B/Akt, and C, respectively

PPPP

D-1-threo-1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-pyrrolidino-1-propanol

SAP

saposin

TNF-α

tumor necrosis factor-α

VEGF

vascular endothelial growth factor

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Svennerholm, L. (1980) in Structure and Function of Gangliosides (Svennerholm, L., ed.) Plenum Press, New York-London, pp. 533–540.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Seyfried, T. N., Ando, S., and Yu, R. K. (1978) J. Lipid Res., 19, 538–543.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nilsson, O., and Svennerholm, L. (1982) J. Lipid Res., 23, 327–334.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rauvala, H. (1976) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 424, 284–295.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vanier, V. T. (1983) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 750, 178–184.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Dyatlovitskaya, E. V., Kryukova, E. V., Mikhalev, I. I., Somova, O. G., Kogtev, L. S., and Bergelson, L. D. (1987) Biokhimiya, 7, 1226–1229.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Muthing, J., and Cacic, M. (1997) Glycoconj. J., 14, 19–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cacic, M., Muthing, J., Kracun, I., Neumann, U., and Weber-Schurholz, S. (1994) Glycoconj. J., 11, 477–485.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dawson, G., Matalon, R., and Dorfman, A. (1972) J. Biol. Chem., 247, 5944–5950.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Komleva, A. V., Prokazova, N. V., Gabrielyan, N. D., Mukhin, D. N., Kashnikova, L. N., Zvezdina, N. D., Martinova, L. N., and Panasyuk, A. F. (1995) Clin. Exp. Rheum., 13, 581–588.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ohashi, M. (1979) Lipids, 14, 52–57.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bobryshev, Y. V., Lord, R. S., Golovanova, N. K., Gracheva, E. V., Zvezdina, N. D., Sadovskaya, V. L., and Prokazova, N. V. (1997) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1361, 287–294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Prokazova, N. V., Orekhov, A. N., Mukhin, D. N., Mikhailenko, I. A., Kogtev, L. S., Sadovskaya, V. L., Golovanova, N. K., and Bergelson, L. D. (1987) Eur. J. Biochem., 167, 349–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Negroni, E., Chigorno, V., Tettamanti, G., and Sonnino, S. (1996) Glycoconj. J., 13, 347–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Watanabe, K., Powell, M. E., and Hakomori, S. I. (1979) J. Biol. Chem., 254, 8223–8229.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ferroni, P., Lenti, L., Martini, F., Ciatti, F., Pontieri, G. M., and Gazzaniga, P. P. (1997) Thromb. Haemost., 77, 548–554.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Martini, F., Riondino, S., Pignatelli, P., Gazzaniga, P. P., Ferroni, P., and Lenti, L. (2002) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1583, 297–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kiguchi, K., Henning-Chubb, C. B., and Huberman, E. (1990) J. Biochem. (Tokyo), 107, 8–14.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Svennerholm, L. (1985) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 835, 231–235.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ariga, T., Ando, S., Takahashi, A., and Miyatake, T. (1980) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 618, 480–485.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bode, L., Beermann, C., Mank, M., Kohn, G., and Boehm, G. (2004) J. Nutr., 134, 3016–3020.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Pan, X., and Izumi, T. (2000) Early Hum. Dev., 57, 25–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Urban, P. F., Harth, S., Freysz, L., and Dreyfus, H. (1980) Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 125, 149–157.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Yu, R. K. (1994) Progr. Brain Res., 101, 31–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sandhoff, K., and Kolter, T. (2003) Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. B, 358, 847–861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Holthuis, J. C. M., Pomorski, T., Raggers, R. J., Sprong, H., and van Meer, G. (2001) Physiol. Rev., 81, 1689–1723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kolter, T., Proia, R. L., and Sandhoff, K. (2002) J. Biol. Chem., 277, 25859–25862.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Harduin-Lepers, A., Mollicone, R., Delannoy, P., and Oriol, R. (2005) Glycobiology, 15, 805–817.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Lloyd, K. O., and Furukawa, K. (1998) Glycoconj. J., 15, 627–636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Melkerson-Watson, L. J., and Sweeley, C. C. (1991) J. Biol. Chem., 266, 4448–4457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Preuss, U., Gu, X., Gu, T., and Yu, R. K. (1993) J. Biol. Chem., 268, 26273–26278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Swamy, M. J., and Sweeley, C. C. (1989) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 162, 1188–1193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gracheva, E. V., Samovilova, N. N., Golovanova, N. K., Andreeva, E. P., Andrianova, I. V., and Prokazova, N. V. (2007) Biochemistry (Moscow), 72, 772–777.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kono, M., Takashima, S., Liu, H., Inoue, M., Kojima, N., Young-Choon, L., Hamamoto, T., and Tsuji, S. (1998) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 253, 170–175.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ishii, A., Ohta, M., Watanabe, Y., Matsuda, K., Ishiyama, K., Sakoe, K., Nakamura, M., Inokuchi, J., Sanai, Y., and Saito, M. (1998) J. Biol. Chem., 273, 31652–31655.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Kapitonov, D., Bieberich, E., and Yu, R. K. (1999) Glycoconj. J., 16, 337–350.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Fukumoto, S., Miyazaki, H., Goto, G., Urano, T., Furukawa, K., and Furukawa, K. (1999) J. Biol. Chem., 274, 9271–9276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Stern, C. A., Braverman, T. R., and Tiemeyer, M. (2000) Glycobiology, 10, 365–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Berselli, P., Zava, S., Sottocornola, E., Milani, S., Berra, B., and Colombo, I. (2006) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1759, 348–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Golovanova, N. K., Samovilova, N. N., Gracheva, E. V., Peklo, M. M., Vlasik, T. N., Sobolev, A. Yu., Yurchenko, Yu. V., and Prokazova, N. V. (2004) Biochemistry (Moscow), 69, 275–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Kim, K. W., Kim, S. W., Min, K. S., Kim, C. H., and Lee, Y. C. (2001) Gene, 273, 163–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Kim, S. W., Lee, S. H., Kim, K. S., Kim, C. H., Choo, Y. K., and Lee, Y. C. (2002) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1578, 84–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Choi, H. J., Chung, T. W., Kang, N. Y., Kim, K. S., Lee, Y. C., and Kim, C. H. (2003) FEBS Lett., 555, 204–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chung, T. W., Choi, H. J., Lee, Y. C., and Kim, C. H. (2005) Glycobiology, 15, 233–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Zeng, G., Gao, L., Xia, T., Tencomnao, T., and Yu, R. K. (2003) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1625, 30–35.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Xia, T., Zeng, G., Gao, L., and Yu, R. K. (2005) Gene, 351, 109–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yamashita, T., Hashiramoto, A., Haluzik, M., Mizukami, H., Beck, S., Norton, A., Kono, M., Tsuji, S., Daniotti, J. L., Werth, N., Sandhoff, R., Sandhoff, K., and Proia, R. L. (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 100, 3445–3449.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Shevchuk, N. A., Hathout, Y., Epifano, O., Su, Y., Liu, Y., Sutherland, M., and Ladisch, S. (2007) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1771, 1226–1234.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Shaposhnikova, G. I., Prokazova, N. V., Buznikov, G. A., Zvezdina, N. D., Teplitz, N. A., and Bergelson, L. D. (1984) Eur. J. Biochem., 140, 567–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Simpson, M. A., Cross, H., Proukakis, C., Priestman, D. A., Neville, D. C., Reinkensmeier, G., Wang, H., Wiznitzer, M., Gurtz, K., Verganelaki, A., Pryde, A., Patton, M. A., Dwek, R. A., Butters, T. D., Platt, F. M., and Crosby, A. H. (2004) Nat. Genet., 36, 1225–1229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Maccioni, H. J., Daniotti, J. L., and Martina, J. A. (1999) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1437, 101–118.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Yu, R. K., Bieberich, E., Xia, T., and Zeng, G. (2004) J. Lipid Res., 45, 783–793.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Allende, M. L., Li, J., Darling, D. S., Worth, C. A., and Young, W. W. (2000) Glycobiology, 10, 1025–1032.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Uliana, A. S., Crespo, P. M., Martina, J. A., Daniotti, J. L., and Maccioni, H. J. (2006) J. Biol. Chem., 281, 32852–32860.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Miyagi, T., Wada, T., Yamaguchi, K., and Hata, K. (2004) Glycoconj. J., 20, 189–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ha, K. T., Lee, Y. C., Cho, S. H., Kim, J. K., and Kim, C. H. (2004) Mol. Cells, 17, 267–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Miyagi, T., Wada, T., Iwamatsu, A., Hata, K., Yoshikawa, Y., Tokuyama, S., and Sawada, M. (1999) J. Biol. Chem., 274, 5004–5011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hasegawa, T., Yamaguchi, K., Wada, T., Takeda, A., Itoyama, Y., and Miyagi, T. (2000) J. Biol. Chem., 275, 8007–8015.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Wang, Y., Yamaguchi, K., Wada, T., Hata, K., Zhao, X., Fujimoto, T., and Miyagi, T. (2002) J. Biol. Chem., 277, 26252–26259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Kalka, D., von Reitzenstein, C., Kopitz, J., and Cantz, M. (2001) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 283, 989–993.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Hooper, N. M. (1998) Curr. Biol., 8, R114–R116.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Sonnino, S., Mauri, L., Chigorno, V., and Prinetti, A. (2006) Glycobiology, 18, 1698–2663.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Tettamanti, G., Masserini, M., Giuliani, A., and Pagani, A. (1988) Ann. Ist. Super. Sanita, 24, 23–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Sorice, M., Longo, A., Garofalo, T., Mattei, V., Misasi, R., and Pavan, A. (2004) Glycoconj. J., 20, 63–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hakomori, S. I. (2000) Glycoconj. J., 17, 143–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kiguchi, K., Henning-Chubb, C. B., and Huberman, E. (1990) J. Biochem. (Tokyo), 107, 8–14.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Offner, H., Thieme, T., and Vandenbark, A. A. (1987) J. Immunol., 139, 3295–3305.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Sorice, M., Pavan, A., Misasi, R., Sansolini, T., Garofalo, T., Lenti, L., Pontieri, G. M., Frati, L., and Torrisi, M. R. (1995) Scand. J. Immunol., 41, 148–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sorice, M., Parolini, I., Sansolini, T., Garofalo, T., Dolo, V., Sargiacomo, M., Tai, T., Reschle, C., Torrisi, M. R., and Pavan, A. (1997) J. Lipid Res., 38, 969–980.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Garofalo, T., Sorice, M., Misasi, R., Cinque, B., Giammatteo, M., Pontieri, G. M., Cifone, M. G., and Pavan, A. (1998) J. Biol. Chem., 273, 35153–35160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Garofalo, T., Sorice, M., Misasi, R., Cinque, B., Mattei, V., Pontieri, G. M., Cifone, M. G., and Pavan, A. (2002) J. Lipid Res., 43, 971–978.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Barbat, C., Trucy, M., Sorice, M., Garofalo, T., Manganelli, V., Fischer, A., and Mazerolles, F. (2007) Biochem. J., 402, 471–481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Garofalo, T., Lenti, L., Longo, A., Misasi, R., Mattei, V., Pontieri, G. M., Pavan, A., and Sorice, M. (2002) J. Biol. Chem., 277, 11233–11238.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Garofalo, T., Misasi, R., Mattei, V., Giammarioli, A. M., Malorni, W., Pontieri, G. M., Pavan, A., and Sorice, M. (2003) J. Biol. Chem., 278, 8309–8315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Misasi, R., Sorice, M., Garofalo, T., Griggi, T., and Campana, W. M. (1998) J. Neurochem., 71, 2313–2321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sorice, M., Garofalo, T., Misasi, R., Longo, A., Mattei, V., Sale, P., Dolo, V., Gradini, R., and Pavan, A. (2001) FEBS Lett., 506, 55–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Bremer, E. G., Schlessinger, J., and Hakomori, S. (1986) J. Biol. Chem., 261, 2434–2440.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hakomori, S. (1970) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 67, 1741–1747.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hakomori, S. (1981) Annu. Rev. Biochem., 50, 733–764.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hakomori, S. (2002) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 99, 10231–10233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Usuki, S., Lyu, S. C., and Sweeley, C. C. (1988) J. Biol. Chem., 263, 6847–6853.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Laine, R. A., and Hakomori, S. (1973) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 54, 1039–1045.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Choi, H. J., Chung, T. W., Kang, S. K., Lee, Y. C., Ko, J. H., Kim, J. G., and Kim, C. H. (2006) Glycobiology, 16, 573–583.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Uemura, S., Feng, F., Kume, M., Yamada, K., Kabayama, K., Nishimura, S., Igarashi, Y., and Inokuchi, J. (2007) Glycobiology, 17, 568–577.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Song, W. X., Vacca, M. F., Welti, R., and Rintoul, D. A. (1990) J. Biol. Chem., 265, 12059–12066.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Rebbaa, A., Hurh, J., Yamamoto, H., Kersey, D. S., and Bremer, E. G. (1996) Glycobiology, 6, 399–406.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Noll, E. N., Lin, J., Nakatsuji, Y., Miller, R. H., and Black, P. M. (2001) Exp. Neurol., 168, 300–309.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Fujimoto, Y., Izumoto, S., Suzuki, T., Kinoshita, M., Kagawa, N., Wada, K., Hashimoto, N., Maruno, M., Nakatsuji, Y., and Yoshiminem, T. (2005) Neurooncol., 71, 99–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kawamura, S., Ohyama, C., Watanabe, R., Satoh, M., Saito, S., Hoshi, S., Gasa, S., and Orikasa, S. (2001) Int. J. Cancer, 94, 343–347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Wang, X. Q., Sun, P., and Paller, A. S. (2003) J. Biol. Chem., 278, 48770–48778.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Wang, X. Q., Sun, P., Go, L., Koti, V., Fliman, M., and Paller, A. S. (2006) J. Invest. Dermatol., 6, 2687–2696.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Mitsuzuka, K., Handa, K., Satoh, M., Arai, Y., and Hakomori, S. (2005) J. Biol. Chem., 280, 35545–35553.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Satoh, M., Ito A., Nojiri, H., Handa, K., Numahata, K., Ohyama, C., Saito, S., Hoshi, S., and Hakomori, S. I. (2001) Int. J. Oncol., 19, 723–731.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Watanabe, R., Ohyama, C., Aoki, H., Takahashi, T., Satoh, M., Saito, S., Hoshi, S., Ishii, A., Saito, M., and Arai, Y. (2002) Cancer Res., 62, 3850–3854.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Zebda, N., Pedron, S., Rebbaa, A., Portoukalian, J., and Berthier-Vergnes, O. (1995) FEBS Lett., 362, 161–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hanai, N., Nores, G. A., MacLeod, C., Torres-Mendez, C. R., and Hakomori, S. (1988) J. Biol. Chem., 263, 10915–10921.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Yoon, S.-J., Nakayama, K., Hikita, T., Handa, K., and Hakomori, S. (2006) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 103, 18987–18991.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wang, X. Q., Yan, Q., Sun, P., Liu, J. W., Go, L., McDaniel, S. M., and Paller, A. S. (2007) Cancer Res., 67, 9986–9995.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Bassi, R., Viani, P., Giussani, P., Riboni, L., and Tettamanti, G. (2001) FEBS Lett., 507, 101–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Dyatlovitskaya, E. V., and Kandyba, A. G. (2006) Biochemistry (Moscow), 71, 347–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Kawakami, Y., Kawakami, K., Steelant, W. F., Ono, M., Baek, R. C., Handa, K., Withers, D. A., and Hakomori, S. (2002) J. Biol. Chem., 277, 34349–34358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Ono, M., Handa, K., Sonnino, S., Withers, D. A., Nagai, H., and Hakomori, S. (2001) Biochemistry, 40, 6414–6421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Alessandri, G., Cornaglia-Ferraris, P., and Gullino, P. M. (1997) Acta Oncol., 36, 383–387.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Alessandri, G., de Cristan, G., Ziche, M., Cappa, A. P., and Gullino, P. M. (1992) J. Cell Physiol., 151, 23–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ziche, M., Morbidelli, L., Alessandri, G., and Gullino, P. M. (1992) Lab. Invest., 67, 711–715.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Manfredi, M. G., Lim, S., Claffey, K. P., and Seyfried, T. N. (1999) Cancer Res., 59, 5392–5397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Mukherjee, P., Faber, A. C., Shelton, L. M., Baek, R. C., Chiles, T. C., and Seyfried, T. N. (2008) J. Lipid Res., 49, 929–938.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Abate, L. E., Mukherjee, P., and Seyfried, T. N. (2006) J. Neurochem., 98, 1973–1984.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Gabri, M. R., Ripoll, G. V., Alonso, D. F., and Gomez, D. E. (2002) J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol., 128, 669–677.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Gabri, M. R., Mazorra, Z., Ripoll, G. V., Mesa, C., Fernandez, L. E., Gomez, D. E., and Alonso, D. F. (2006) Clin. Cancer Res., 12, 7092–7098.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ryden, M., and Arner, P. (2007) J. Intern. Med., 262, 431–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Nagata, S. (1996) Adv. Exp. Med. Biol., 406, 119–124.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Nachbur, U., Kassahn, D., Yousefi, S., Legler, D. F., and Brunner, T. (2006) Blood, 107, 2790–2796.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Inokuchi, J. (2006) Biol. Pharm. Bull., 29, 1532–1537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Rho, Y. I., Kwak, D. H., Lee, S., Ahn, S. H., Baek, S. H., Song, J. H., Choo, Y. K., Choi, B. K., and Jung, K. Y. (2004) Life Sci., 75, 51–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Kwak, D. H., Lee, S., Kim, S. J., Ahn, S. H., Song, J. H., Choo, Y. K., Choi, B. K., and Jung, K. Y. (2005) Life Sci., 77, 2540–2551.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Peguet-Navarro, J., Sportouch, M., Popa, I., Berthier, O., Schmitt, D., and Portoukalian, J. (2003) J. Immunol., 170, 3488–3494.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Nakatsuji, Y., and Miller, R. H. (2001) Exp. Neurol., 168, 290–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Sohn, H., Kim, Y. S., Kim, H. T., Kim, C.-H., Cho, E. W., Kang, H. Y., Kim, N. S., Kim, C.-H., Ryu, S. E., Lee, J. H., and Ko, J. H. (2006) FASEB J., 20, 1248–1250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Azuma, Y., Sato, H., Higai, K., and Matsumoto, K. (2007) Biol. Pharm. Bull., 30, 1680–1684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Noguchi, M., Kabayama, K., Uemura, S., Kang, B. W., Saito, M., Igarashi, Y., and Inokuchi, J. (2006) Glycobiology, 16, 641–650.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Wang, P., Wu, P., Zhang, J., Sato, T., Yamagata, S., and Yamagata, T. (2007) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 356, 438–443.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Ueno, S., Saito, S., Wada, T., Yamaguchi, K., Satoh, M., Arai, Y., and Miyagi, T. (2006) J. Biol. Chem., 281, 7756–7764.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Valaperta, R., Chigorno, V., Basso, L., Prinetti, A., Bresciani, R., Preti, A., Miyagi, T., and Sonnino, S. (2006) FASEB J., 20, 1227–1229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Kojima, N., Shiota, M., Sadahira, Y., Handa, K., and Hakomori, S. (1992) J. Biol. Chem., 267, 17264–17270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Zheng, M., Fang, H., Tsuruoka, T., Tsuji, T., Sasaki, T., and Hakomori, S. (1993) J. Biol. Chem., 268, 2217–2222.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kasahara, K., and Sanai, Y. (2000) Glycoconj. J., 17, 153–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Iwabuchi, K., Handa, K., and Hakomori, S. (1998) J. Biol. Chem., 273, 33766–33773.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Zhang, Y., Iwabuchi, K., Nunomura, S., and Hakomori, S. (2000) Biochemistry, 39, 2459–2468.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Iwabuchi, K., Zhang, Y., Handa, K., Withers, D. A., Sinay, P., and Hakomori, S. (2000) J. Biol. Chem., 275, 15174–15181.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Hakomori, S. (2000) Glycoconj. J., 17, 627–647.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Hakomori, S. (2004) Glycoconj. J., 21, 125–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Momoi, T., and Yokota, J. (1983) J. Natl. Cancer Inst., 70, 229–236.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Nojiri, H., Takaku, F., Terui, Y., Miura, Y., and Saito, M. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 83, 782–786.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Nojiri, H., Takaku, F., Tetsuka, T., Motoyoshi, K., Miura, Y., and Saito, M. (1984) Blood, 64, 534–541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Momoi, T., Shinmoto, M., Kasuya, J., Senoo, H., and Suzuki, Y. (1986) J. Biol. Chem., 261, 16270–16273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Saito, M. (1989) Develop. Growth Differ., 31, 509–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Xia, X. J., Gu, X. B., Sartorelli, A. C., Yu, R. K., and Sartorelli, A. C. (1989) J. Lipid Res., 30, 181–188.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Nakamura, M., Kirito, K., Yamanoi, J., Wainai, T., Nojiri, H., and Saito, M. (1991) Cancer Res., 51, 1940–1945.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Nakamura, M., Ogino, H., Nojiri, H., Kitagawa, S., and Saito, M. (1989) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 161, 782–789.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Nojiri, H., Kitagawa, S., Nakamura, M., Kirito, K., Enomoto, Y., and Saito, M. (1988) J. Biol. Chem., 263, 7443–7446.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Zeng, G., Ariga, T., Gu, X. B., and Yu, R. K. (1995) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 92, 8670–8674.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Stamatos, N. M., Liang, F., Nan, X., Landry, K., Cross, A. S., Wang, L. X., and Pshezhetsky, A. V. (2005) FEBS J., 272, 2545–2556.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Bobryshev, Y. V., Golovanova, N. K., Tran, D., Samovilova, N. N., Gracheva, E. V., Efremov, E. E., Sobolev, A. Y., Yurchenko, Y. V., Lord, R. S., Cao, W., Lu, J., Saito, M., and Prokazova, N. V. (2006) Atherosclerosis, 184, 63–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Bobryshev, Y. V., Lord, R. S., Golovanova, N. K., Gracheva, E. V., Zvezdina, N. D., and Prokazova, N. V. (2001) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1535, 87–99.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Pleiades Publishing, Ltd. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. V. Prokazova
    • 1
  • N. N. Samovilova
    • 1
  • E. V. Gracheva
    • 1
  • N. K. Golovanova
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Experimental Cardiology, Russian Cardiology Research CenterRussian Ministry of HealthMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations